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Poikiloderma Vasculare Atrophicans
Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA), sometimes referred to as parapsoriasis variegata[1] or parapsoriasis lichenoides[2] is a cutaneous condition (skin disease) characterized by hypo- or hyperpigmentation (diminished or heightened skin pigmentation, respectively), telangiectasia and skin atrophy.[3][4][5] Other names for the condition include prereticulotic poikiloderma and atrophic parapsoriasis.[6] The condition was first described by pioneer American pediatrician Abraham Jacobi
Abraham Jacobi
in 1906.[7] PVA causes areas of affected skin to appear speckled red and inflamed, yellowish and/or brown, gray or grayish-black, with scaling and a thinness that may be described as "cigarette paper".[3] On the surface of the skin, these areas may range in size from small patches, to plaques (larger, raised areas), to neoplasms (spreading, tumor-like growths on the skin).[3][6] Mycosis fungoides, a type of skin lymphoma, may be a cause of PVA
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Dermis
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. It is divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area known as the reticular dermis.[1] The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix.[2] It also contains mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and thermoreceptors that provide the sense of heat. In addition, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are present in the dermis
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Dermatology
Dermatology
Dermatology
(from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.[1][2] It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.[3][4][5] A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense,[6] and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.[2][7]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Training3.1 United States 3.2 United Kingdom4 Fields4.1 Cosmetic dermatology 4.2 Dermatopathology 4.3 Immunodermatology 4.4 Mohs surgery 4.5
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Capillary
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick. They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Nosology
Nosology (from Ancient Greek νόσος (nosos), meaning 'disease', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of-') is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.Contents1 Types of classification 2 Coding systems 3 Extended nosology and general medical conditions 4 History 5 Applications 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes of classification[edit] Diseases may be classified by cause, pathogenesis (mechanism by which the disease is caused), or by symptom(s). Alternatively, diseases may be classified according to the organ system involved, though this is often complicated since many diseases affect more than one organ. A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or pathogenesis are unknown
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Bloom Syndrome
Bloom syndrome
Bloom syndrome
(often abbreviated as BS in literature),[1] also known as Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome,[2] is a rare autosomal recessive[3][4] disorder characterized by short stature, predisposition to the development of cancer and genomic instability.[5] BS is caused by mutations in the BLM gene leading to mutated DNA helicase protein formation. Cells from a person with Bloom syndrome exhibit a striking genomic instability that includes excessive crossovers between homologous chromosomes and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The condition was discovered and first described by New York dermatologist Dr
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Epidermis (skin)
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.[1] The epidermis layer provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens[2] and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss.[3] The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of stratified layers of flattened cells,[4] that overlies a basal layer (stratum basale) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly. The rows of cells develop from the stem cells in the basal layer. ENaCs are found to be expressed in all layers of the epidermis.[5] Epidermis
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Melanin
Melanin
Melanin
(/ˈmɛlənɪn/ ( listen); from Greek: μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin
Melanin
is produced by the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine, followed by polymerization. The melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes. There are three basic types of melanin: eumelanin, pheomelanin, and neuromelanin. The most common type is eumelanin, of which there are two types—brown eumelanin and black eumelanin. Pheomelanin
Pheomelanin
is a cysteine-derivative that contains polybenzothiazine portions that are largely responsible for the color of red hair, among other pigmentation
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Melanocyte
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural-crest derived[3] cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea),[4] the inner ear,[5] vaginal epithelium,[6] meninges,[7] bones,[8] and heart.[9] Melanin
Melanin
is a dark pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Once synthesized, melanin is contained in special organelles called melanosomes which can be transported to nearby keratinocytes to induce pigmentation. Functionally, melanin serves as protection against UV radiation. Melanocytes also have a role in the immune system.Contents1 Function1.1 Role in the Immune System 1.2 Stimulation2 Clinical significance 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksFunction[edit]3D rendering of a melanocyteThrough a process called melanogenesis, melanocytes produce melanin, which is a pigment found in the skin, eyes, hair, nasal cavity, and inner ear
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Circulatory System
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood.[2] Blood
Blood
is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues
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Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
(NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.[1] Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and tiredness.[1] Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness.[1] Some forms are slow growing while others are fast growing.[1] Lymphomas are types of cancer that develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.[2] Risk factors include poor immune function, autoimmune diseases,
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Stratum Germinativum
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum basale is a continuous layer of cells. It is often described as one cell thick, though it may in fact be two to three cells thick in glabrous skin (hairless), and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease).[1] The stratum basale is primarily made up of basal keratinocyte stem cells, which can be considered the stem cells of the epidermis
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Stratum Corneum
The stratum corneum ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids.[2] The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale
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Genodermatosis
Genodermatoses are inherited genetic skin conditions often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic.[1]:547 A few genodermatoses[edit]Epidermolysis bullosa Ichthyosis Palmoplantar keratoderma Neurofibromatosis Xeroderma pigmentosum Incontinentia pigmenti Restrictive dermopathy Pachyonychia congenitaSee also[edit]List of cutaneous conditions The project Together Against Genodermatoses of the Fondation René TouraineReferences[edit]^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.)
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