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Piercing (metalworking)
Blanking and piercing
Blanking and piercing
are shearing processes in which a punch and die are used to modify webs. The tooling and processes are the same between the two, only the terminology is different: in blanking the punched out piece is used and called a blank; in piercing the punched out piece is scrap.[1] The process for parts manufactured simultaneously with both techniques is often termed "pierce and blank." An alternative name of piercing is punching.Contents1 Characterization of part quality and potential defects 2 Tooling design guidelines 3 Process variants3.1 Lancing 3.2 Perforating 3.3 Notching 3.4 Nibbling 3.5 Shaving 3.6 Trimming 3.7 Cutoff 3.8 Fine blanking4 References4.1 BibliographyCharacterization of part quality and potential defects[edit] Burrs and die rolls are typical defects of trimmed surfaces
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Peening
Peening
Peening
is the process of working a metal's surface to improve its material properties, usually by mechanical means, such as hammer blows, by blasting with shot (shot peening) or blasts of light beams with laser peening. Peening
Peening
is normally a cold work process (laser peening being a notable exception[citation needed]). It tends to expand the surface of the cold metal, thereby inducing compressive stresses or relieving tensile stresses already present. Peening
Peening
can also encourage strain hardening of the surface metal.Contents1 Residual stress 2 Work hardening 3 Residual Strain / Stretching 4 Use with welding 5 Sharpening blades 6 History 7 See also 8 ReferencesResidual stress[edit] Plastic deformation from peening induces a residual compressive stress in a peened surface, along with tensile stress in the interior
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Tube Bending
Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing. One must differentiate between form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat supported and cold forming procedures. Form bound bending procedures like “press bending” or “rotary draw bending” are used to form the work piece into the shape of a die. Straight tube stock can be formed using a bending machine to create a variety of single or multiple bends and to shape the piece into the desired form. These processes can be used to form complex shapes out of different types of ductile metal tubing.[1] Freeform-bending processes, like three-roll-pushbending, shape the workpiece kinematically, thus the bending contour is not dependent on the tool geometry. Generally, round stock is used in tube bending. However, square and rectangular tubes and pipes may also be bent to meet job specifications
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Electrohydraulic Forming
Electrohydraulic forming is a type of metal forming in which an electric arc discharge in liquid is used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy and change the shape of the workpiece. A capacitor bank delivers a pulse of high current across two electrodes, which are positioned a short distance apart while submerged in a fluid (water or oil). The electric arc discharge rapidly vaporizes the surrounding fluid creating a shock wave. The workpiece, which is kept in contact with the fluid, is deformed into an evacuated die. The potential forming capabilities of submerged arc discharge processes were recognized as early as the mid-1940s (Yutkin L.A.). During the 1950s and early 1960s, the basic process was developed into production systems. This work principally was by and for the aerospace industries. By 1970, forming machines based on submerged arc discharge were available from machine tool builders
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Electromagnetic Forming
Electromagnetic forming
Electromagnetic forming
(EM forming or magneforming) is a type of high velocity, cold forming process for electrically conductive metals, most commonly copper and aluminium. The workpiece is reshaped by high intensity pulsed magnetic fields that induce a current in the workpiece and a corresponding repulsive magnetic field, rapidly repelling portions of the workpiece. The workpiece can be reshaped without any contact from a tool, although in some instances the piece may be pressed against a die or former. The technique is sometimes called high velocity forming or electromagnetic pulse technology.Contents1 Explanation 2 Applications 3 Comparison with Mechanical Forming 4 References 5 External linksExplanation[edit] A special coil is placed near the metallic workpiece, replacing the pusher in traditional forming
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Explosive Forming
Explosive forming is a metalworking technique in which an explosive charge is used instead of a punch or press. It can be used on materials for which a press setup would be prohibitively large or require an unreasonably high pressure, and is generally much cheaper than building a large enough and sufficiently high-pressure press; on the other hand, it is unavoidably an individual job production process, producing one product at a time and with a long setup time.Contents1 Various approaches 2 Tooling 3 History 4 Explosive forming of vacuum tube anode (plate) materials 5 References 6 External linksVarious approaches[edit] There are various approaches; one is to place metal plate over a die, with the intervening space evacuated by a vacuum pump, place the whole assembly underwater, and detonate a charge at an appropriate distance from the plate
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Forging
Forging
Forging
is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging
Forging
is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to hundreds of metric tons.[1][2] Forging
Forging
has been done by smiths for millennia; the traditional products were kitchenware, hardware, hand tools, edged weapons, cymbals, and jewellery
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Hydroforming
Hydroforming
Hydroforming
is a cost-effective way of shaping ductile metals such as aluminium, brass, low alloy steel, and stainless steel into lightweight, structurally stiff and strong pieces. One of the largest applications of hydroforming is the automotive industry, which makes use of the complex shapes made possible by hydroforming to produce stronger, lighter, and more rigid unibody structures for vehicles. This technique is particularly popular with the high-end sports car industry and is also frequently employed in the shaping of aluminium tubes for bicycle frames. Hydroforming
Hydroforming
is a specialized type of die forming that uses a high pressure hydraulic fluid to press room temperature working material into a die. To hydroform aluminium into a vehicle's frame rail, a hollow tube of aluminium is placed inside a negative mold that has the shape of the desired result
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Rolling (metalworking)
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is known as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes.[1][2] Roll stands holding pairs of rolls are grouped together into rolling mills that can quickly process metal, typically steel, into products such as structural steel (I-beams, angle stock, channel stock, and so on), bar stock, and rails
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Sinking (metalworking)
Sinking, also known as doming, dishing or dapping, is a metalworking technique whereby flat sheet metal is formed into a non-flat object by hammering it into a concave indentation. While sinking is a relatively fast method, it results in stretching and therefore thinning the metal, risking failure of the metal if it is 'sunk' too far. Sinking is used in the manufacture of many items, from jewellery to plate armour. References[edit]Rupert Finegold and William Seitz. Silversmithing. Krause; 1983. ISBN 0-8019-7232-9 Price, Brian R. Techniques of Medieval Armour Reproduction. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2000
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Metal Spinning
Metal spinning, also known as spin forming or spinning or metal turning most commonly, is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part.[1] Spinning can be performed by hand or by a CNC lathe. Metal spinning
Metal spinning
does not involve removal of material, as in conventional wood or metal turning, but forming (moulding) of sheet material over an existing shape. Metal spinning
Metal spinning
ranges from an artisan's specialty to the most advantageous way to form round metal parts for commercial applications
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Swaging
Swaging
Swaging
(/ˈsweɪdʒ/) is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using dies into which the item is forced.[1] Swaging
Swaging
is usually a cold working process, but also may be hot worked.[2] The term swage may apply to the process (verb) or a die or tool used in it (noun).Contents1 Origin 2 Process 3 Uses3.1 Blacksmithing 3.2 Electronics 3.3 Plastics 3.4 Pipes and cables 3.5 Saw blade teeth 3.6 Manufacturing 3.7 Firearms 3.8 Medicine 3.9 Musical instrument repair 3.10 Car styling 3.11 Lockbolts4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyOrigin[edit]A selection of blacksmithing swagesThe term "swage" comes from the Old French term souage, meaning "decorative groove" or "ornamental moulding".[3] Swages were originally tools used by blacksmiths to form metal into various shapes too intricate to make with a hammer alone
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Brazing
Brazing
Brazing
is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Brazing
Brazing
differs from welding in that it does not involve melting the work pieces and from soldering in using higher temperatures for a similar process, while also requiring much more closely fitted parts than when soldering. The filler metal flows into the gap between close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux
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Piece Work
Piece work
Piece work
(or piecework) is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit produced or action performed[1] regardless of time.Contents1 Context 2 Establishing a fair rate 3 History3.1 <
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Crimp (joining)
Crimping is joining two or more pieces of metal or other ductile material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp.Crimp tool for 0.14 mm to 10.00 mm insulated and non-insulated ferrulesF connectors crimped on to coaxial cable. The bottom middle cable is missing its crimping collar.Contents1 Wire connectors 2 Uses 3 See also 4 ReferencesWire connectors[edit] Main article: Crimp connection The metals are joined together via a special connector. Stripped wire (often stranded) is inserted through the correctly sized opening of the connector, and a crimper is used to tightly squeeze the opening against the wire. Depending on the type of connector used, it may be attached to a metal plate by a separate screw or bolt or it could be simply screwed on using the connector itself to make the attachment like an F connector. Uses[edit] Crimping is most extensively used in metalworking
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Rivet
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite to the head is called the tail. On installation, the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked (i.e., deformed), so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place. In other words, pounding creates a new "head" on the other end by smashing the "tail" material flatter, resulting in a rivet that is roughly a dumbbell shape. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail. Because there is effectively a head on each end of an installed rivet, it can support tension loads (loads parallel to the axis of the shaft); however, it is much more capable of supporting shear loads (loads perpendicular to the axis of the shaft)
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