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Penicillins
Penicillin
Penicillin
(PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use)
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Penicillin (band)
Penicillin
Penicillin
(stylized as PENICILLIN) is a Japanese visual kei alternative rock band, formed in Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1992.Contents1 History 2 Member information 3 Discography3.1 Singles 3.2 Albums4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Formed by friends at Tokai University
Tokai University
in Tokyo, Japan on February 14, 1992
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Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. They are classified in four groups after the proposal of P. G. H. Gell and Robin Coombs in 1963.[1]Contents1 Coombs and Gell classification1.1 Type V2 See also 3 ReferencesCoombs and Gell classification[edit]Comparison of hypersensitivity typesType Alternative names Often mentioned disorders Mediators DescriptionI Allergy
Allergy
(immediate)Atopy Anaphylaxis Asthma Churg-Strauss SyndromeIgEFast response which occurs in minutes, rather than multiple hours or days
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Antibiotic Resistance
Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them.[2][3][4] The term includes the more specific antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR), which applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.[3] Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses, both of which may be more expensive or more toxic
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Allergy
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibod
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Alexander Fleming
Sir Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
FRS FRSE FRCS[1] (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin ( Penicillin
Penicillin
G) from the mould Penicillium notatum
Penicillium notatum
in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1945 with Howard Florey
Howard Florey
and Ernst Boris Chain.[3][4][5] He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. Fleming was knighted for his scientific achievements in 1944.[6] In 1999, he was named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century
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Penicillium
over 300 List of Penicillium
Penicillium
speciesSynonyms[1]Floccaria Grev.
Grev.
(1827) Aspergilloides Dierckx (1901) Walzia Sorokin (1871) Pritzeliella Henn.
Henn.
(1903) Penicillium
Penicillium
(/ˌpɛnɪˈsɪliəm/) ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. Some members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria. Other species are used in cheesemaking
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Gram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.[1] They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth
Earth
that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis
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Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
In microbiology, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical which prevents visible growth of a bacterium. This is in difference to the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) which is the concentration resulting in microbial death as defined by the inability to re-culture bacteria. The closer the MIC is to the MBC, the more bactericidal the compound.[1] The MIC of a chemical is determined by preparing solutions of the chemical in vitro at increasing concentrations, incubating the solutions with the separate batches of cultured bacteria, and measuring the results using agar dilution or broth microdilution. Results have been graded into susceptible (often called sensitive), intermediate, or resistant to a particular antibiotic by using a cut off point. Cut off points are agreed upon values, published in guidelines of a reference body, such as the U.S
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Adverse Drug Reaction
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.[1] ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The meaning of this expression differs from the meaning of "side effect", as this last expression might also imply that the effects can be beneficial.[2] The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance
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Diarrhoea
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.[2] It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss.[2] Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour.[2] This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe.[2] Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are exclusively breastfed, however, are normal.[2] The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite - a condition also known as gastroenteritis.[2] These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by feces, or directly from another person who is infected.[2] The three types of diarrhea are: short duration watery diarrhea, short duration bloody diarrhea, and persistent diarrhea (lasting more than two weeks).[2] Th
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Nausea
Nausea is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.[1] It may precede vomiting, but a person can have nausea without vomiting. When prolonged, it is a debilitating symptom.[2] Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, low blood sugar, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression.[3][4][5] Medications taken to prevent and treat nausea are called antiemetics. The most commonly prescribed antiemetics in the US are promethazine, metoclopramide and ondansetron
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Streptococcus
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[4] and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). Cell division
Cell division
in this genus occurs along a single axis in these bacteria, thus they grow in chains or pairs, hence the name—from Greek στρεπτός streptos, meaning easily bent or twisted, like a chain (twisted chain). (Contrast this with staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes and generate grape-like clusters of cells.) Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. In 1984, many bacteria formerly considered Streptococcus
Streptococcus
were separated out into the genera Enterococcus
Enterococcus
and Lactococcus.[5] Currently, over 50 species are recognised in this genus
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Neurotoxicity
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.[1] It occurs when exposure to substance – specifically, a neurotoxin – alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause permanent or reversible damage to nervous tissue.[1] This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, which are cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, pesticides,[2][3] certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances. Symptoms may appear immediately after exposure or be delayed
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Urticaria
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.[1] They may also burn or sting.[2] Often the patches of rash move around.[2] Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long-lasting skin changes.[2] Fewer than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks.[2] The condition frequently recurs.[2] Hives
Hives
frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an allergic reaction such as to medication, insect bites, or food.[2] Psychological stress, cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger.[1][2] In half of cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma.[3] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance
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Superinfection
A superinfection is a second infection superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment being used against the first infection.[1] Examples of this in bacteriology are the overgrowth of endogenous Clostridium difficile which occurs following treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and pneumonia or septicemia from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
in some immuno-compromised patients.[2] In virology, the definition is slightly different. Superinfection is the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time.[3] Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection
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