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Papa Stronsay
[2][3] [4][5]Papa Stronsay
Stronsay
LighthouseThe Light on Papa Stronsay.orkneyLocation Papa Stronsay Orkney Scotland United KingdomCoordinates 59°09′21″N 2°34′54″W / 59.155837°N 2.581717°W / 59.155837; -2.581717Year first constructed 1907 (first)Year first lit 2002 (current)Automated 2002Deactivated 2002 (first)Foundation reinforced concreteConstruction metal skeletal towerTower shape quadrangular tower covered by aluminium panels with balcony and light on the topMarkings / pattern white towerHeight 5 metres (16 ft)Focal height 8 metres (26 ft)Light source solar powerCharacteristic Iso W 4s.Admiralty number A3706NGA number 3268ARLHS number SCO-167Managing agent Northern Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Board[6]Papa Stronsay
Stronsay
(Old Norse: Papey Minni) is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Stronsay
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Olaf II Of Norway
Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway
Norway
from 1015 to 1028. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site
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John Of Fordun
John of Fordun (before 1360 – c. 1384) was a Scottish chronicler. It is generally stated that he was born at Fordoun, Mearns. It is certain that he was a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in the St Machar's Cathedral
St Machar's Cathedral
of Aberdeen.[1] The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt to write a continuous history of Scotland. We are informed that Fordun's patriotic zeal was roused by the removal or destruction of many national records by Edward III of England
Edward III of England
and that he traveled in England and Ireland, collecting material for his history. Collectively, this work, divided into five books, is known as the Chronica Gentis Scotorum
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Shetland
Shetland
Shetland
/ˈʃɛtlənd/ (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland
Shetland
Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland
Scotland
that lies northeast of Great Britain. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney, 168 km (104 mi) from the Scottish mainland and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands. They form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west and the North Sea
North Sea
to the east
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Iceland
Iceland
Iceland
(/ˈaɪslənd/ ( listen); Icelandic: Ísland, pronounced [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.[8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland
Iceland
is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland
Iceland
is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle
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Orkneyinga Saga
The Orkneyinga saga
Orkneyinga saga
(also called the History of the Earls of Orkney and Jarls' Saga) is an historical narrative of the history of the Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
islands and their relationship with other local polities, particularly Norway
Norway
and Scotland
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Rögnvald Brusason
Rognvald Brusason (died 1046), son of Brusi Sigurdsson, was Earl of Orkney jointly with Thorfinn Sigurdsson
Thorfinn Sigurdsson
from about 1037 onwards. His life is recorded in the Orkneyinga Saga. Rognvald was taken by his father to Norway, to the court of Olaf Haraldsson, when Brusi and Thorfinn went there to have the inheritance of Einar Wry-mouth's third-share of the Earldom settled. Olaf kept Einar's share for himself, appointing Brusi to administer it, and kept Rognvald at his court.[1] The Orkneyinga Saga
Orkneyinga Saga
says of Rognvald:Rognvald was one of the handsomest of men, with a fine head of golden hair, smooth as silk
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Yule
Yule
Yule
or Yuletide (" Yule
Yule
time") was and is a festival observed by the historical Germanic peoples. Scholars have connected the celebration to the Wild Hunt, the god Odin, and the pagan Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Mōdraniht. It later underwent Christianized reformulation resulting in the term Christmastide. Terms with an etymological equivalent to Yule
Yule
are used in the Nordic countries for Christmas
Christmas
with its religious rites, but also for the holidays of this season. Today Yule
Yule
is also used to a lesser extent in the English-speaking world as a synonym for Christmas. Present-day Christmas
Christmas
customs and traditions such as the Yule
Yule
log, Yule
Yule
goat, Yule boar, Yule
Yule
singing, and others stem from pagan Yule
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Christmas
Christmas
Christmas
is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,[8][9] observed primarily on December 25[4][10][11] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][12][13] A feast central to the Christian
Christian
liturgical year, it is precede
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Malt
Malt
Malt
is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.[1][2][3][4] Malting grains develops the enzymes required for modifying the grain's starches into various types of sugar, including the monosaccharide glucose, the disaccharide maltose, the trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. Depending on when the malting process is stopped one gets a preferred starch enzyme ratio and partly converted starch into fermentable sugars. Malt also contains small amounts of other sugars, such as sucrose and fructose, which are not products of starch modification but were already in the grain
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Stiklestad
Stiklestad is a village and parish in the municipality of Verdal in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) east of the town of Verdalsøra and about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) southeast of the village of Forbregd/Lein. The village is mainly known as the site of the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. Stiklestad Church is located in the village and it is assumed to have been erected on the exact spot where King Olaf II Haraldsson fell in the battle. The king was buried in Nidaros (Trondheim), canonised there on 3 August 1031, and later enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral. Following the Lutheran reformation of 1537 the saint's remains were removed and their precise resting-place has been unknown since 1568.Stiklestad in 1848.Contents1 Name 2 Panorama of the area 3 See also 4 ReferencesName[edit] The Old Norse form of the name is Stiklarstaðir. The first element is the genitive of a word stikl and the last element is staðir which means "farm"
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Cairn
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn [ˈkʰaːrˠn̪ˠ] (plural càirn [ˈkʰaːrˠɲ]).[1] Cairns
Cairns
have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present.A cairn to mark a mountain summit in Graubünden, SwitzerlandIn modern times, cairns are often erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have also been built and used as burial monuments; for defense and hunting; for ceremonial purposes, sometimes relating to astronomy; to locate buried items, such as caches of food or objects; and to mark trails, among other purposes. Cairns
Cairns
are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra
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Deacon
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the diaconate is a clerical office; in others it is for laity
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Lap Dog
A lapdog or lap dog is a dog that is both small enough to be held in the arms or lie comfortably on a person's lap and temperamentally predisposed to do so. Lapdogs are not a specific breed, but is a generic term for a type of dog of small size and friendly disposition. Lapdogs historically were kept in many societies around the world by individuals with leisure time, as docile companion animals with no working function other than companionship. Genetic analysis reveals that lapdogs are among the earliest specific types of dogs to live with people
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William Edmonstoune Aytoun
William Edmondstoune Aytoun FRSE (21 June 1813 – 4 August 1865) was a Scottish poet, lawyer by training, and professor of rhetoric and belles lettres at the University of Edinburgh. He published poetry, translation, prose fiction, criticism and satire and was a lifelong contributor to the Edinburgh literary periodical Blackwoods Magazine. He was also a collector of Scottish ballads. In the early 1850s, Professor Aytoun lent his name as a supporter of the fledgling National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights. His distinctive legacy as a teacher has led to him being called the 'first modern professor of English Literature'.[1]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Travels and writings 3 University appointment and political affiliations 4 Family life 5 Resting place 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and education[edit]William Aytoun was born in the New Town of Edinburgh, the only son of Joan Keith (d. 1861) and Roger Aytoun (d
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