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Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park
The OLMEDILLA PHOTOVOLTAIC PARK is a 60-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic power plant , located in Olmedilla de Alarcón , Spain. When completed in July 2008, it was the world\'s largest power plant using photovoltaic technology. The plant employs more than 270,000 conventional solar panels , using solar cells made of conventional crystalline silicon . Olmedilla generates about 87,500 megawatt-hours per year, enough to power 40,000 homes
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World Energy Council
The WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL is a global and inclusive forum for thought-leadership and tangible engagement with headquarters in London. Its mission is 'To promote the sustainable supply and use of energy for the greatest benefit of all people'. The idea for the foundation of the Council came from Daniel Nicol Dunlop in the 1920s. He wanted to gather experts from all around the world to discuss current and future energy issues. He organised in 1923 first national committees, which organised the first WORLD POWER CONFERENCE (WPC) in 1924. 1700 experts from 40 countries met in London to discuss energy issues. The meeting was a success and the participants decided on July 11, 1924 to establish a permanent organisation named World Power Conference. Dunlop was elected as its first Secretary General. In 1968 the name was changed to World Energy Conference and in 1992 it became the World Energy Council
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List Of Photovoltaic Power Stations
The following is a LIST OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER STATIONS that are larger than 150 megawatts (MW) in current net capacity. Most are individual photovoltaic power stations , but some are groups of co-located plants owned by different independent power producers and with separate transformer connections to the grid. Wiki-Solar reports total global capacity of utility-scale photovoltaic plants to be some 96 GWAC which generated 1.3% of global power by the end of 2016. The size of photovoltaic power stations has increased progressively over the last decade with frequent new capacity records . The 97 MW Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant went online in 2010. Huanghe Hydropower Golmud Solar Park reached 200 MW in 2012. In August 2012, Agua Caliente Solar Project , (Arizona, 290 MW) reached 247 MW only to be passed by three larger plants in 2013
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Our Choice
OUR CHOICE is a 2009 book written by former U.S. Vice President Al Gore . Originally titled The Path to Survival it follows An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It , a companion book to the film An Inconvenient Truth . All profits of the book (printed on 100% recycled paper) go to the Alliance for Climate Protection , which Gore founded in 2006. CONTENTS * 1 Reception * 2 Nuclear power * 3 Carbon capture and storage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links RECEPTIONIn September 2009, Nature Reports Climate Change called the book one of its "Must-reads for Copenhagen ". Reviewing the book for Nature Reports Climate Change, Joseph Romm described its content: Whereas An Inconvenient Truth framed the crisis that climate negotiations are tackling, this followup spells out what needs to be done
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Photoelectric Effect
The PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light is shone onto a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photo electrons. The phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics , as well as in fields of chemistry , such as quantum chemistry or electrochemistry . According to classical electromagnetic theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron. From this perspective, an alteration in the intensity of light would induce changes in the kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the metal. Furthermore, according to this theory, a sufficiently dim light would be expected to show a time lag between the initial shining of its light and the subsequent emission of an electron. However, the experimental results did not correlate with either of the two predictions made by classical theory
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Solar Insolation
This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT ON THE SUBJECT. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. Consider associating this request with a WikiProject . (July 2015)SOLAR IRRADIANCE is the power per unit area received from the Sun
Sun
in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth\'s surface after atmospheric absorption and scattering . It is measured perpendicular to the incoming sunlight. TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE (TSI), is a measure of the solar power over all wavelengths per unit area incident on the Earth's upper atmosphere . The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical Unit (AU). Irradiance is a function of distance from the Sun, the solar cycle , and cross-cycle changes
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Watt-peak
The NOMINAL POWER is the nameplate capacity of photovoltaic (PV) devices, such as solar cells , panels and systems , and is determined by measuring the electric current and voltage in a circuit , while varying the resistance under precisely defined conditions. These Standard Test Conditions (STC) are specified in standards such as IEC 61215, IEC 61646 and UL 1703; specifically the light intensity is 1000 W/m2, with a spectrum similar to sunlight hitting the earth's surface at latitude 35°N in the summer (airmass 1.5), the temperature of the cells being 25 °C. The power is measured while varying the resistive load on the module between an open and closed circuit (between maximum and minimum resistance). The highest power thus measured is the 'nominal' power of the module in watts
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Watt-peak AC
The NOMINAL POWER is the nameplate capacity of photovoltaic (PV) devices, such as solar cells , panels and systems , and is determined by measuring the electric current and voltage in a circuit , while varying the resistance under precisely defined conditions. These Standard Test Conditions (STC) are specified in standards such as IEC 61215, IEC 61646 and UL 1703; specifically the light intensity is 1000 W/m2, with a spectrum similar to sunlight hitting the earth's surface at latitude 35°N in the summer (airmass 1.5), the temperature of the cells being 25 °C. The power is measured while varying the resistive load on the module between an open and closed circuit (between maximum and minimum resistance). The highest power thus measured is the 'nominal' power of the module in watts
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Solar Star
SOLAR STAR is a 579-megawatt (MWAC ) photovoltaic power station near Rosamond, California . When completed in June 2015, it was the world\'s largest solar farm in terms of installed capacity, using 1.7 million solar panels, made by SunPower and spread over 13 square kilometers (3,200 acres). CONTENTS * 1 Comparison to similar plants * 2 Production * 3 References * 4 External links COMPARISON TO SIMILAR PLANTSCompared to other photovoltaic plants of similar size, Solar Star uses a smaller number (1.7 million) of large form-factor, high-wattage modules, mounted on single axis trackers. In contrast, the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm and the Topaz Solar Farm (550 MW each) use a larger number (roughly 9 million) of smaller form-factor, lower wattage thin film CdTe photovoltaic modules on fixed-tilt arrays, rather than crystalline silicon technology, spread over a larger area (about 25 square kilometers)
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Longyangxia Dam
The LONGYANGXIA DAM is a concrete arch-gravity dam at the entrance of the Longyangxia canyon on the Yellow River
Yellow River
in Gonghe County , Qinghai Province , China
China
. The dam is 178 metres (584 ft) tall and was built for the purposes of hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, ice control and flood control. The dam supports a 1,280 MW power station with 4 x 320 MW generators that can operate at a maximum capacity of 1400 MW. Controlling ice, the dam controls downstream releases to reservoirs lower in the river, allowing them to generate more power instead of mitigating ice. Water in the dam's 24.7 billion m3 reservoir provides irrigation water for up to 1,000,000 hectares (2,471,054 acres) of land. The dam is composed of its main body and a gravity pier and secondary dam on both its left and right flank
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Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park
KURNOOL ULTRA MEGA SOLAR PARK is a solar park spread over a total area of 5,932.32 acres (24.0072 km2) in Panyam mandal of Kurnool district , Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
. With a capacity of 1,000 MW, it is the world's 3rd largest solar park. The project was implemented by the Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Solar Power Corporation Private Limited (APSPCL), a joint venture of the Solar Energy Corporation of India , Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Power Generation Corporation and the New & Renewable Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Ltd. The park was built at an investment of around ₹7,000 crore (US$1.1 billion) by solar power developers and the Central and State governments
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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Solar Constant
The SOLAR CONSTANT, a measure of flux density , is the mean solar electromagnetic radiation (the solar irradiance) per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays, at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) from the Sun
Sun
(roughly the mean distance from the Sun
Sun
to the Earth). The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation , not just the visible light . It is measured by satellite as being 1.361 kilo watts per square meter (kW/m²) at solar minimum and approximately 0.1% greater (roughly 1.362 kW/m²) at solar maximum. The solar "constant" is not a physical constant in the modern CODATA
CODATA
scientific sense; that is, it is not like the Planck constant or the speed of light , which are absolutely constant in physics. The solar constant is merely an average of the actually varying value. It has been shown to vary in the past 400 years over a range of less than 0.2 percent
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Solar Cell Efficiency
SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY refers to the portion of energy in the form of sunlight that can be converted via photovoltaics into electricity. The efficiency of the solar cells used in a photovoltaic system , in combination with latitude and climate, determines the annual energy output of the system. For example, a solar panel with 20% efficiency and an area of 1 m2 will produce 200 W at Standard Test Conditions, but it can produce more when the sun is high in the sky and will produce less in cloudy conditions and when the sun is low in the sky. In central Colorado, which receives annual insolation of 5.5 kWh/m2/day, such a panel can be expected to produce 440 kWh of energy per year. However, in Michigan, which receives only 3.8 kWh/m2/day, annual energy yield will drop to 280 kWh for the same panel. At more northerly European latitudes, yields are significantly lower: 175 kWh annual energy yield in southern England
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Sun-free Photovoltaics
SUN-FREE PHOTOVOLTAICS is a photovoltaics technology which does not require sunlight to produce electricity. This technique was developed by research team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Photovoltaic cells convert light to electricity most efficiently at specific wavelengths. The surface featured of Sun-free photovoltaics is engineered such that it converts heat energy into the specific wavelengths. This increases the efficiency of existing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. CONTENTS * 1 Principle of working * 2 Development * 3 Operation * 4 Applications * 5 References * 6 See also PRINCIPLE OF WORKINGThe surface of this material is etched with billions of nanoscale pits, so that it emits wave at the specified wavelengths and suppresses other wavelengths which are not required. When the surface is exposed to heat energy, it radiates light energy at required wavelengths
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Thermodynamic Efficiency Limit
THERMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY LIMIT is the absolute maximum theoretically possible conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity . Its value is about 86%, which is the Chambadal-Novikov efficiency , an approximation related to the Carnot limit , based on the temperature of the photons emitted by the Sun's surface. CONTENTS * 1 Effect of band gap energy * 2 Efficiency limits for different solar cell technologies * 3 Thermodynamic efficiency limit
Thermodynamic efficiency limit
for excitonic solar cells * 4 Thermodynamic efficiency limits with carrier multiplication * 5 See also * 6 References EFFECT OF BAND GAP ENERGY Solar cells operate as quantum energy conversion devices , and are therefore subject to the thermodynamic efficiency limit
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