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Oku Volcanic Field
The Oku
Oku
Volcanic Field or Oku
Oku
Massif is a group of volcanoes based on a swell in the Cameroon
Cameroon
Volcanic Line, located in the Oku
Oku
region of the Western High Plateau
Western High Plateau
of Cameroon.[1] The Mount Oku
Oku
stratovolcano rises to 3,011 m above sea level.[2] The massif has a diameter of almost 100 km and contains four major stratovolcanoes: Mount Oku, Mount Babanki 15 km SW of Oku, Nyos and Nkambe. Rocks in the massif have ages from 24.9 to 22.1 million years ago, but more recent activity has occurred.[3] The massif is composed of rhyolitic and trachytic rock, and contains many maars and basaltic cinder cones.[2] The Oku
Oku
Volcanic Field includes two crater lakes, Lake Nyos
Lake Nyos
to the north and Lake Monoun
Lake Monoun
to the south
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Cameroon Volcanic Line
The Cameroon line is a 1,600 km (990 mi) chain of volcanoes.[1] It includes islands in the Gulf of Guinea and mountains that extend along the border region of eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon, from Mount Cameroon on the Gulf of Guinea north and east towards Lake Chad. The islands, which span the equator, have tropical climates and are home to many unique plant and bird species. The mainland mountain regions are much cooler than the surrounding lowlands, and also contain unique and ecologically important environments. The Cameroon volcanic line is geologically unusual in extending through both the ocean and the continental crust
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Lake Nyos
Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, located about 315 km (196 mi) northwest of Yaoundé the capital.[1] Nyos is a deep lake high on the flank of an inactive volcano in the Oku volcanic plain along the Cameroon line of volcanic activity. A volcanic dam impounds the lake waters. A pocket of magma lies beneath the lake and leaks carbon dioxide (CO2) into the water, changing it into carbonic acid. Nyos is one of only three known exploding lakes to be saturated with carbon dioxide in this way, the others being Lake Monoun, also in Cameroon, and Lake Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1986, possibly as the result of a landslide, Lake Nyos suddenly emitted a large cloud of CO2, which suffocated 1,746 people[2] and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages.[3][4] Though not completely unprecedented, it was the first known large-scale asphyxiation caused by a natural event
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Foumban Shear Zone
The Foumban Shear Zone, or Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ), is a fault zone in Cameroon that has been correlated with the Pernambuco fault in northeastern Brazil, which splays from the Trans-Brazilian Lineament.[1] It is part of the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ) and dates to at least 640 million years ago. The zone was rejuvenated several times, usually with a dextral movement, before and during the opening of the South Atlantic in the Cretaceous period.[2] The Foumban shear zone is a series of faults associated with major mylonite zones, a segment of the CASZ. The CASZ can be traced from the Sudan to the Adamawa plateau, after which its path is obscured by volcanoes. Based on reconstruction of the configuration of South America before it separated from Africa, the zone can be identified with the Pernambuco fault.[3] The shear zone underlies a chain of active volcanoes, called the Cameroon Volcanic Line
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Lake Monoun
Lake Monoun is a lake in West Province, Cameroon, that lies in the Oku Volcanic Field 5°35′N 10°35′E / 5.58°N 10.59°E / 5.58; 10.59. On August 15, 1984, the lake exploded in a limnic eruption, which resulted in the release of a large amount of carbon dioxide that killed 37 people. At first, the cause of the deaths was a mystery, and causes such as terrorism were suspected. Further investigation and a similar event two years later at Lake Nyos led to the currently accepted explanation.Contents1 Disaster 2 Degassing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDisaster[edit] Several people reported hearing a loud noise on August 15, 1984 around 22:30. A gas cloud reportedly emanated from a crater in the eastern part of the lake. The resulting deaths of residents in a low-lying area are believed to have occurred between 03:00 and dawn. The victims were said to have skin burns, which reports later clarified as "skin damage" such as discoloration
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Cinder Cones
A cinder is a pyroclastic material. Cinders are extrusive igneous rocks. Cinders are similar to pumice, which has so many cavities, causing its low-density of 0.641g/cm^3 that allows it to even float on water. Cinder is typically brown, black, or red depending on its chemical content. A more modern name for cinder is scoria. Characteristics[edit] The following geologic characteristics define a cinder:Uncemented Vitric Having bubble-like cavities, called vesicles Measuring not less than 2.0 millimeters in at least one dimension Apparent specific gravity between 1.0 and 2.0 Typical cinders are red or black in color. Contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly.Uses[edit] Cinders have been used on track surfaces and roads to provide additional traction in winter conditions. Cinders are also employed as inorganic mulch in xeriscaping, because of excellent drainage properties and erosion resistance
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Oku
Oku is a subdivision in Northwest Cameroon. The term Oku also refers to the people who live in this region and the primary language that they speak (although English is also widely spoken). Oku is a rural area containing about thirty-six villages. The nearest really large city is Bamenda, but Kumbo, which is closer (about 14 miles (23 km) from the village of Keyon, or about seventy minutes by car as the road network is not good and not paved), is large enough to have telephone lines and a Baptist-run hospital.Oku also has a Sub-divisional hospital.However,three mobile telephone networks (MTN, ORANGE, CAMTEL) are available in Oku. As such, mobile internet facilities are available.Contents1 Geography and climate 2 Economy 3 Religion 4 ReferencesGeography and climate[edit] Oku is a very mountainous region, around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) above sea level, and thus rather cool considering its latitude
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Basaltic
Basalt
Basalt
(pronounced /bəˈsɔːlt/, /ˈbæsɒlt/ or /ˈbæsɔːlt/)[1] is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon
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Maar
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption (an explosion which occurs when groundwater comes into contact with hot lava or magma). A maar characteristically fills with water to form a relatively shallow crater lake which may also be called a maar.[1] The name comes from a Moselle Franconian dialect word used for the circular lakes of the Daun
Daun
area of Germany.[2] Maars are shallow, flat-floored craters that scientists interpret as having formed above diatremes as a result of a violent expansion of magmatic gas or steam; deep erosion of a maar presumably would expose a diatreme. Maars range in size from 60 to 8,000 m (200 to 26,250 ft) across and from 10 to 200 m (33 to 656 ft) deep; most maars commonly fill with water to form natural lakes
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Trachytic
Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. It is the volcanic equivalent of syenite. The mineral assemblage consists of essential alkali feldspar; relatively minor plagioclase and quartz or a feldspathoid such as nepheline may also be present. (See the QAPF diagram). Biotite, clinopyroxene and olivine are common accessory minerals.Contents1 Chemical composition 2 Mineralogy 3 Geographic distribution 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksChemical composition[edit] Chemically, trachyte contains 60 to 65% silica content; less SiO2 than rhyolite and more (Na2O plus K2O) than dacite. These chemical differences are consistent with the position of trachyte in the TAS classification, and they account for the feldspar-rich mineralogy of the rock type. Mineralogy[edit]A polished opal on trachyteTrachytes usually consist mainly of sanidine feldspar
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