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Ojibwe People
The OJIBWE, OJIBWA, or CHIPPEWA are an Anishinaabeg group of indigenous peoples in North America
North America
. They live in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
and are one of the largest Indigenous ethnic groups north of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree
Cree
. In the United States, they have the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by the Navajo , Cherokee
Cherokee
, and Lakota-Dakota-Nakota people . The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people traditionally have spoken the Ojibwe language , a branch of the Algonquian language family
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Nipissing First Nation
The NIPISSING FIRST NATION consists of historic First Nation band governments of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Algonquin descent who, following succeeding cultures of ancestors, have lived in the area of Lake Nipissing in the Canadian province
Canadian province
of Ontario
Ontario
for about 9,400 years. They are referred to by many names in European historical records, since the colonists often adopted names given to them by other nations. The Nipissing are generally considered part of the Anishinaabe peoples, a grouping of people speaking Algonquin languages , which includes the Odawa , Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Algonquins . This broad heritage is likely the result of the Nipissings' living at a geographical crossroads, a watershed divide
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Algonquin People
The ALGONQUINS are indigenous inhabitants of North America
North America
who speak the Algonquin language
Algonquin language
, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language , which is part of the Algonquian language family. Culturally and linguistically, they are closely related to the Odawa and Ojibwe
Ojibwe
, with whom they form the larger Anicinàpe (Anishinaabe) grouping. The Algonquin people
Algonquin people
call themselves Omàmiwinini (plural: Omàmiwininiwak) or the more generalised name of Anicinàpe. Though known by several names in the past, the most common term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet
Maliseet
word elakómkwik (IPA: ): "they are our relatives/allies"
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British Columbia
BRITISH COLUMBIA (BC or B.C.; French: Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada
Canada
, located between the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and the Rocky Mountains . With an estimated population of 4.8 million as of 2017, it is Canada's third-most populous province . The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria , established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria , at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver
Vancouver
Island . Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866) was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment , in response to the Fraser Canyon
Fraser Canyon
Gold Rush
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Birch Bark
BIRCH BARK or BIRCHBARK is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be easily cut, bent, and sewn, which has made it a valuable building, crafting, and writing material , since pre-historic times. Even today, birch bark remains a popular type of wood for various handicrafts and arts. Birch
Birch
bark also contains substances of medicinal and chemical interest. Some of those products (such as betulin ) also have fungicidal properties that help preserve bark artifacts, as well as food preserved in bark containers. A Russian birch bark letter (14th century) CONTENTS * 1 Collection and storage * 2 Working * 3 Uses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links COLLECTION AND STORAGERemoving birch bark from live trees is harmful to tree health and should be avoided
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Canoe
A CANOE is a lightweight narrow watercraft , typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle . In International Canoe Federation nomenclature used in some European countries such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
the term canoe refers to kayaks , while canoes are called Canadian canoes . Canoes are used for racing , whitewater canoeing , touring and camping, freestyle , and general recreation. The intended use of the canoe dictates its hull shape and length and construction material. Historically, canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame, but construction materials evolved to canvas on a wood frame, then to aluminum . Most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass
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Council Of Three Fires
The COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES (in Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
: NISWI-MISHKODEWIN) are also known as the PEOPLE OF THE THREE FIRES; the THREE FIRES CONFEDERACY; or the UNITED NATIONS OF CHIPPEWA, OTTAWA, AND POTAWATOMI INDIANS. The council is a long-standing Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
alliance of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(or Chippewa), Ottawa (or Odawa), and Potawatomi North American Native tribes. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Treaties * 2.1 With Great Britain * 2.2 With the United States * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links HISTORYOriginally one people, or a collection of closely related bands, the ethnic identities of Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi developed after the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
reached Michilimackinac on their journey westward from the Atlantic coast
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Algonquian Languages
The ALGONQUIAN LANGUAGES (/ælˈɡɒŋkiən/ or /ælˈɡɒŋkwiən/ ; also ALGONKIAN) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family . The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the indigenous Ojibwe language (Chippewa), which is a senior member of the Algonquian language family. The term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (pronounced ), "they are our relatives/allies". A number of Algonquian languages, like many of the Iroquoian languages of the hereditary enemies of the Algonquian peoples, have already become extinct. Speakers of Algonquian languages
Algonquian languages
stretch from the east coast of North America to the Rocky Mountains
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Native Americans In The United States
In the United States
United States
of America , NATIVE AMERICANS (also known as AMERICAN INDIANS, INDIGENOUS AMERICANS or simply INDIANS; see §Terminology differences ) are people who belong to one of the over 500 distinct Native American tribes that survive intact today as partially sovereign nations within the country's modern boundaries. These tribes and bands are descended from the pre-Columbian indigenous population of North America
North America

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Navajo Nation
The NAVAJO NATION (Navajo : Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a semi-autonomous Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres (71,000 km2; 27,413 sq mi), occupying portions of northeastern Arizona
Arizona
, southeastern Utah
Utah
, and northwestern New Mexico
New Mexico
in the United States
United States
. This is the largest land area retained by a U.S. tribe, with a total population of 173,667. The original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016 under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program , some 149,524 acres (605.10 km2; 233.63 sq mi) of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation
Nation
for tribal communal use. The program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations
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Cherokee
(316,049 enrolled tribal members (Eastern Band: 13,000+, Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation: 288,749, United Keetoowah Band: 14,300) 819,105 claimed Cherokee
Cherokee
ancestry in the 2010 Census ) REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS United States North Carolina 16,158 (0.2%) Oklahoma
Oklahoma
102,580 (2.7%) LANGUAGES English, Cherokee
Cherokee
RELIGION Christianity
Christianity
, Kituhwa , Four Mothers Society , Native American Church THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHEROKEE SYLLABIC CHARACTERS . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabics.The CHEROKEE (/ˈtʃɛrəkiː/ ; Cherokee
Cherokee
: ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ, translit. Aniyvwiyaʔi or Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ, translit
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Sioux
The SIOUX /ˈsuː/ also known as DAKOTA, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations
First Nations
peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects. The Sioux
Sioux
comprise three major divisions based on language divisions : the Dakota , Lakota , and Nakota . The Santee Dakota (Isáŋyathi; "Knife") reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas , Minnesota
Minnesota
and northern Iowa
Iowa
. The Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna; "Village-at-the-end" and "Little village-at-the-end"), collectively also referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, and have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota
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Birch Bark Scrolls
WikiProject * Indigenous North Americans First Nations * Commons * WiktionaryInuit * Commons * WiktionaryMétis * Commons * Wiktionary * v * t * e Example of a Birch bark scroll piece WIIGWAASABAK (Ojibwe language, plural: WIIGWAASABAKOON) are birch bark scrolls, on which the Ojibwa (Anishinaabe ) people of North America wrote complex geometrical patterns and shapes . When used specifically for Midewiwin ceremonial use, these scrolls are called MIDE-WIIGWAAS. These enabled the memorization of complex ideas, and passing along history and stories to succeeding generations. Several such scrolls are in museums, including one on display at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC. In addition to birchbark, copper and slate may have also been used, along with hides, pottery, and other artifacts. Some archaeologists are presently trying to determine the exact origins, dates, and locations of their use
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Pictograph
A PICTOGRAM, also called a PICTOGRAMME, PICTOGRAPH, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon , is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. A pictogram may also be used in subjects such as leisure, tourism and geography. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings , similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing , which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes. Some pictograms, such as Hazards pictograms , are elements of formal languages . Pictograph has a rather different meaning in the field of prehistoric art , including recent art by traditional societies. Here it means art painted on rock surfaces, as opposed to petroglyphs that are carved or incised
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Ritual
A RITUAL "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence". Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community , including a religious community . Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and performance. Rituals are a feature of all known human societies. They include not only the worship rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but also rites of passage , atonement and purification rites , oaths of allegiance , dedication ceremonies, coronations and presidential inaugurations, marriages and funerals, school "rush " traditions and graduations, club meetings, sporting events, Halloween parties, veterans parades, Christmas
Christmas
shopping and more
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