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Norman Conquest Of England
The NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman , Breton , and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy , later styled as William the Conqueror . William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor , who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson . The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford , but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north
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Æthelred The Unready
ÆTHELRED II ( Old English
Old English
: Æþelræd, pronounced ; c. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as THE UNREADY, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death. His epithet does not derive from the modern word "unready", but rather from the Old English
Old English
unræd (meaning "poorly advised"); it is a pun on his name, which means "well advised". Æthelred was the son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryth . He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr
Edward the Martyr
. His brother's murder was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. The chief problem of Æthelred's reign was conflict with the Danes . After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the 980s
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William I Longsword
WILLIAM LONGSWORD (French : Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin : Willermus Longa Spata, Old Norse : Vilhjálmr Langaspjót), (c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy , from 927 until his assassination in 942. He is sometimes anachronistically dubbed " Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy
", even though the title duke (dux) did not come into common usage until the 11th century. Longsword was known at the time by the title Count (Latin comes) of Rouen
Rouen
. Flodoard —always detailed about titles—consistently referred to both Rollo and his son William as principes (chieftains) of the Norse
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Feoffment
In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, especially under the European feudal system , FEOFFMENT or ENFEOFFMENT was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service. This mechanism was later used to avoid restrictions on the passage of title in land by a system in which a landowner would give land to one person for the use of another. The common law of estates in land grew from this concept. CONTENTS * 1 England * 2 Asia * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ENGLANDIn English law, feoffment was a transfer of land or property that gave the new holder the right to sell it as well as the right to pass it on to his heirs as an inheritance. It was total relinquishment and transfer of all rights of ownership of an estate in land from one individual to another
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Emma Of Normandy
EMMA OF NORMANDY (c. 985 – 6 March 1052) was a queen consort of England
England
, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
. She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy
Normandy
, and his second wife, Gunnora . Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready
(1002–1016) and Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
(1017–1035), she became the Queen Consort
Queen Consort
of England, Denmark, and Norway. She was the mother of three sons, Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
, Alfred , and Harthacnut
Harthacnut
, as well as two daughters, Goda of England , and Gunhilda of Denmark
Denmark
. Even after her husbands' deaths Emma remained in the public eye, and continued to participate actively in politics
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Richard II, Duke Of Normandy
RICHARD II (23 August 963 – 28 August 1026), called THE GOOD (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora . He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Marriages and children * 3 Genealogy * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFERichard succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry , his uncle, who wielded the power and put down a peasant insurrection at the beginning of Richard's reign. Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with Robert II of France , who he helped militarily against the duchy of Burgundy
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Noble Court
The COURT of a monarch , or an important nobleman , is the extended household and all those who regularly attend on the ruler or central figure. The court of the monarchy would gather in the throne room . In the largest courts, the royal households , many thousands of individuals comprised the court. These courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue , household , nobility , those with court appointments , bodyguard , and may also include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may also seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern
Near Eastern
and Eastern courts often included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was walled off and separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia
Asia
, concubines were often a more visible part of the court
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Richard I Of Normandy
RICHARD I (28 August 933 – 20 November 996), also known as RICHARD THE FEARLESS (French, Richard Sans-Peur)( Old Norse
Old Norse
,"Jarl Richart) was the Count of Rouen or Jarl of Rouen
Rouen
from 942 to 996. Dudo of Saint-Quentin , whom Richard commissioned to write the "De moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum" (Latin, "On the Customs and Deeds of the First Dukes of Normandy"), called him a Dux. However, this use of the word may have been in the context of Richard's renowned leadership in war, and not as a reference to a title of nobility . Richard either introduced feudalism into Normandy
Normandy
or he greatly expanded it. By the end of his reign, most important Norman landholders held their lands in feudal tenure
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Carolingian Dynasty
Non-agnatic lines: * Robertian dynasty * House of Capet
House of Capet
* Bosonid dynasty CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY PIPPINIDS * Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640) * Grimoald (616–656) * Childebert the Adopted (d. 662) ARNULFINGS * Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
(582–640) * Ansegisel
Ansegisel
(d. 662 or 679) * Chlodulf of Metz
Chlodulf of Metz
(d. 696 or 697) * Pepin of Herstal
Pepin of Herstal
(635-714) * Grimoald II (d. 714) * Drogo of Champagne (670–708) * Theudoald (d. 741) CAROLINGIANS * Charles Martel (686–741) * Carloman (d
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Anglo-Saxon Christianity
The history of Christianity in England from the Roman departure to the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
is often told as one of conflict between the Celtic Christianity
Celtic Christianity
spread by the Irish mission , and Roman Christianity brought across by Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury

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Treaty Of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte
The TREATY OF SAINT-CLAIR-SUR-EPTE, between Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
(King Charles III of France) and Rollo , the leader of the Vikings , was signed in autumn 911. The treaty permitted the Normans
Normans
to settle in Neustria
Neustria
in return for their protection of Charles' kingdom from any new invasion by the "northmen". No written records survive concerning the creation of the Duchy of Normandy
Duchy of Normandy
. In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo attacked Paris
Paris
before laying siege to Chartres . Appeals for help from the Bishop of Chartres, Joseaume, were answered by Robert, Marquis
Marquis
of Neustria, Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Manasses, Count of Dijon
Dijon

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Avranches
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. AVRANCHES (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy
Normandy
region in northwestern France. It is a subprefecture of the department. The inhabitants are called Avranchinais. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Sights * 4 Sport * 5 Twin towns * 6 Births * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYBy the end of the Roman period, the settlement of Ingena, capital of the Abrincatui tribe, had taken the name of the tribe itself. This was the origin of the name Avranches
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Charles The Simple
CHARLES III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called THE SIMPLE or THE STRAIGHTFORWARD (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 King of West Francia * 3 King of Lotharingia * 4 Revolt of the nobles * 4.1 Deposition of Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
* 5 Family * 6 Notes * 7 References EARLY LIFECharles was the third and posthumous son of king Louis the Stammerer by his second wife Adelaide of Paris . As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother, king Carloman II
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Cotentin Peninsula
The COTENTIN PENINSULA (French pronunciation: ​ ), also known as the CHERBOURG PENINSULA, is a peninsula in Normandy
Normandy
that forms part of the northwest coast of France. It extends north-westward into the English Channel
English Channel
, towards Great Britain. To its west lie the Channel Islands and to the southwest lies the Brittany
Brittany
Peninsula. The peninsula lies wholly within the department of Manche
Manche
, in the region of Normandy
Normandy

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List Of Norwegian Monarchs
The LIST OF NORWEGIAN MONARCHS (Norwegian : kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872: the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord , after which victorious King Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father. Named after the homonymous geographical region , Harald's realm was later to be known as the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
. Traditionally established in 872 and existing continuously for over 1,100 years, the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
is one of the original states of Europe
Europe
: King Harald V
Harald V
, who has reigned since 1991, is the 64th monarch according to the official list. During interregna , Norway has been ruled by variously titled regents
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