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Norman Conquest Of England
The Norman conquest of England
England
(in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson. The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford, but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Stamford Bridge
on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England
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East Anglia
East Anglia
East Anglia
is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied[1] but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk
Suffolk
and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough
Peterborough
unitary authority.[2] The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe that originated in Angeln, northern Germany.Contents1 Area 2 History 3 Geography3.1 Climate4 Transport 5 Universities 6 Enterprise zones 7 Symbols and culture 8 Tourism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksArea[edit] Definitions of what constitutes East Anglia
East Anglia
vary
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Æthelred The Unready
Æthelred II (Old English: Æþelræd, pronounced [æðelræːd];[1] c. 966 – 23 April 1016), known as the Unready, was King of the English
King of the English
from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death. His epithet does not derive from the modern word "unready", but rather from the Old English
Old English
unræd (meaning "poorly advised"); it is a pun on his name, which means "well advised". Æthelred was the son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryth. He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr. His brother's murder was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. The chief problem of Æthelred's reign was conflict with the Danes. After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the 980s
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Carolingian Dynasty
Non-agnatic lines:Robertian dynastyHouse of Capet Bosonid dynastyCarolingian dynastyThe Carolingian cross.PippinidsPippin the Elder (c. 580–640) Grimoald (616–656) Childebert the Adopted
Childebert the Adopted
(d. 662)Arnulfings Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
(582–640) Ansegisel (d. 662 or 679) Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697) Pepin of Herstal
Pepin of Herstal
(635-714) Grimoald II (d. 714) Drogo of Champagne
Drogo of Champagne
(670–708) Theudoald (d. 741)Carolingians Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(686–741) Carloman (d
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Treaty Of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte
The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
(King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed[citation needed] in autumn 911. The treaty permitted the Normans
Normans
to settle in Neustria
Neustria
in return for their protection of Charles' kingdom from any new invasion by the "northmen". No written records survive concerning the creation of the Duchy of Normandy. In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo
Rollo
attacked Paris
Paris
before laying siege to Chartres. Appeals for help from the Bishop of Chartres, Joseaume, were answered by Robert, Marquis
Marquis
of Neustria, Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Manasses, Count of Dijon
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Paganism
Paganism
Paganism
is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christianity
Christianity
for populations of the Roman E
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Bessin
The Bessin is an area in Normandy, France, corresponding to the territory of the Bajocasses
Bajocasses
tribe of Gaul
Gaul
who also gave their name to the city of Bayeux, central town of the Bessin. History[edit] The territory was annexed by the count of Rouen in 924. The Bessin corresponds to the former diocese of Bayeux, which was incorporated into the Calvados département following the French Revolution. Ecology[edit] Part of the Bessin is now administered as a national park for its importance as marshland. Coordinates: 49°20′00″N 0°37′00″W / 49.3333°N 0.616667°W / 49.3333; -0.616667This Calvados geographical article is a stub
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Cotentin Peninsula
The Cotentin Peninsula
Peninsula
(French pronunciation: ​[kotɑ̃tɛ̃]), also known as the Cherbourg
Cherbourg
Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy
Normandy
that forms part of the northwest coast of France. It extends north-westward into the English Channel, towards Great Britain. To its west lie the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and to the southwest lies the Brittany
Brittany
Peninsula. The peninsula lies wholly within the department of Manche, in the region of Normandy.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Roman Armorica 2.2 Medieval history 2.3 Modern history3 Economy 4 Culture 5 References 6 Other sourcesGeography[edit] The Cotentin peninsula is part of the Armorican Massif[1] (with the exception of the Plain lying in the Paris Basin) and lies between the estuary of the Vire river and Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Bay
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Avranches
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Avranches
Avranches
(French pronunciation: ​[avʁɑ̃ʃ]) is a commune in the Manche
Manche
department in the Normandy
Normandy
region in northwestern France. It is a subprefecture of the department. The inhabitants are called Avranchinais.[1]Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Sights 4 Sport 5 Twin towns 6 Births 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] By the end of the Roman period, the settlement of Ingena, capital of the Abrincatui tribe, had taken the name of the tribe itself. This was the origin of the name Avranches
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Emma Of Normandy
Emma of Normandy
Normandy
(c. 985 – 6 March 1052) was a queen consort of England, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway. She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and his second wife, Gunnora. Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready
(1002–1016) and Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
(1017–1035), she became the Queen Consort
Queen Consort
of England, Denmark, and Norway. She was the mother of three sons, King Edward the Confessor, Alfred Ætheling, and King Harthacnut, as well as two daughters, Goda of England, and Gunhilda of Denmark. Even after her husbands' deaths Emma remained in the public eye, and continued to participate actively in politics. She is the central figure within the Encomium Emmae
Encomium Emmae
Reginae, a critical source for the history of early 11th-century English politics
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William I Longsword
William Longsword
William Longsword
(French: Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin: Willermus Longa Spata, Old Norse: Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c
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Richard Ii, Duke Of Normandy
Richard II (unknown – 28 August 1026), called the Good (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora.[1][2] He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy
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Witenagemot
The Witenaġemot ( Old English
Old English
witena ġemōt, Old English pronunciation: [ˈwitena jeˈmoːt], modern English /ˈwɪtənəɡəˈmoʊt/ "meeting of wise men"), also known as the Witan (more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England
which operated from before the 7th century until the 11th century. The Witenagemot
Witenagemot
was an assembly of the ruling class whose primary function was to advise the king and whose membership was composed of the most important noblemen in England, both ecclesiastic and secular. The institution is thought to represent an aristocratic development of the ancient Germanic general assemblies, or folkmoots
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Canon Law
Canon law
Canon law
(from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.[1] The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches
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