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Nitronium Ion
The nitronium ion, NO+ 2, is a cation. It is an onium ion because of its tetravalent nitrogen atom and +1 charge, similar in that regard to ammonium. It is created by the removal of an electron from the paramagnetic nitrogen dioxide molecule, or the protonation of nitric acid (with removal of H2O). It is stable enough to exist in normal conditions, but it is generally reactive and used extensively as an electrophile in the nitration of other substances. The ion is generated in situ for this purpose by mixing concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid according to the equilibrium:H2SO4 + HNO3 → HSO− 4 + NO+ 2 + H2OContents1 Structure 2 Salts 3 Related species 4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The nitronium ion is isoelectronic with carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, and has the same linear structure and bond angle of 180°
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Ionic Compound
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding. The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH+ 4) and carbonate (CO2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate. Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure. Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases. Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions
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Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous,[1] is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N 2O. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a slight metallic scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide
has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects. Its name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic
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Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy
(/ˈrɑːmən/; named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.[1] Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared
Infrared
spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information. Typically, a sample is illuminated with a laser beam
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Nucleophile
A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction. All molecules or ions with a free pair of electrons or at least one pi bond can act as nucleophiles. Because nucleophiles donate electrons, they are by definition Lewis bases. Nucleophilic describes the affinity of a nucleophile to the nuclei. Nucleophilicity, sometimes referred to as nucleophile strength, refers to a substance's nucleophilic character and is often used to compare the affinity of atoms. Neutral nucleophilic reactions with solvents such as alcohols and water are named solvolysis
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Nitronium Perchlorate
Nitronium perchlorate, NO2ClO4, also known as nitryl perchlorate and nitroxyl perchlorate, is an inorganic chemical, the salt of the perchlorate anion and the nitronium cation. It forms colorless monoclinic crystals. It is hygroscopic, and is a strong oxidizing and nitrating agent. It may become hypergolic in contact with organic materials. Nitronium perchlorate was investigated as an oxidizer in solid rocket propellants. Thomas N. Scortia filed for patent on such propellant in 1963.[1] However its reactivity and incompatibility with many materials hindered such use. Coating of nitronium perchlorate particles with ammonium nitrate, prepared in situ by passing of dry ammonia gas over the particles, was investigated and a patent was awarded.[2] Decomposition rate of nitronium perchlorate can be altered by doping with multivalent cations.[3] Nitronium perchlorate and ammonium perchlorate do not produce smoke when stoicheometrically burned with non-metallic fuels
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Nitronium Tetrafluoroborate
Nitronium tetrafluoroborate is an inorganic compound with formula NO2BF4. It is a salt of nitronium cation and tetrafluoroborate anion. It is a colorless crystalline solid, which reacts with water to form the corrosive acids HF and HNO3. As such, it must be handled under water-free conditions. It is sparsely soluble in many organic solvents. Preparation[edit] Nitronium tetrafluoroborate can be prepared by adding a mixture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and boron trifluoride to a nitromethane solution of nitric acid or nitrogen pentoxide.[1] Applications[edit] Nitronium tetrafluoroborate is used as a nitration agent. References[edit]^ Kenneth Schofield (1980). Aromatic nitration. CUP Archive. p. 88. ISBN 0-521-23362-3. v t eTetrafluoroboratesAgBF4 Ba(BF4)2 C7H7BF4 Cd(BF4)2 CsBF4 Cu(BF4)2 [Et3O]BF4 [FeCp2]BF4 HBF4 (IPy2)BF4 KBF4 LiBF4 [Me3O]BF4 NaBF4 NH4BF4 NOBF4 NO2BF4 (FTEDA)BF4 Zn(BF4)2This inorganic compound–related article is a stub
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Hexafluorophosphate
Hexafluorophosphate is an anion with chemical formula of PF− 6. This octahedral species is isoelectronic with sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, and the hexafluorosilicate dianion, SiF62−, and is valence isoelectronic with the highly stable superacid anion fluoroantimonate SbF− 6. As a non-coordinating anion,[2][3][4] it is a poor nucleophile
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Fluoroantimonic Acid
Hydrogen fluoride Magic acidExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox referencesFluoroantimonic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula H 2FSbF 6 (also written H 2F[SbF 6], 2HF·SbF5, or simply HF-SbF5). It has a pH of -31.3.[1] It is an ionic liquid produced by treating hydrogen fluoride (HF) with antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) in a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. It is the strongest superacid.[2][3] It is particularly corrosive and toxic
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Hygroscopic
Hygroscopy
Hygroscopy
is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat
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Dinitrogen Pentoxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5. Also known as nitrogen pentoxide, N2O5 is one of the binary nitrogen oxides, a family of compounds that only contain nitrogen and oxygen. It is an unstable and potentially dangerous oxidizer that once was used as a reagent when dissolved in chloroform for nitrations but has largely been superseded by NO2BF4 (nitronium tetrafluoroborate). N2O5 is a rare example of a compound that adopts two structures depending on the conditions: most commonly it is a salt, but under some conditions it is a polar molecule:[NO2+][NO3−] ⇌ N2O5Contents1 Syntheses and properties 2 Structure 3 Reactions and applications 4 Hazards 5 ReferencesSyntheses and properties[edit] N2O5 was first reported by Deville in 1840, who prepared it by treating AgNO3 with Cl2.[2][3] A recommended laboratory synthesis entails dehydrating nitric acid (HNO3) with phosphorus(V) oxide:[4]P4O10 + 12 HNO3 → 4 H3PO4 + 6 N2O5
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Nitrate
Nitrate
Nitrate
is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u. Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties and diet 3 Occurrence 4 Uses 5 Detection 6 Toxicity6.1 Poisoning 6.2 Human health effects 6.3 Marine toxicity7 Nitrate
Nitrate
overview 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a −​2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion
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Isoelectronicity
Not to be confused with Isoelectric Point/Focusing or the baseline of the Electrocardiogram the Isoelectric Line Isoelectronicity
Isoelectronicity
is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).[1] The species concerned are termed isoelectronic. This definition is sometimes termed valence isoelectronicity, in contrast with various alternatives. At one extreme these require identity of the total electron count and with it the entire electron configuration.[2] More usually, alternatives are broader, and may extend to allowing different numbers of atoms in the species being compared.[3] The importance of the concept lies in identifying significantly related species, as pairs or series
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Liquid
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas, and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than in a gas. Therefore, liquid and solid are both termed condensed matter
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