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Nepeta
Nepeta
Nepeta
is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
also known as catmints. The genus name is reportedly in reference to Nepete, an ancient Etruscan city.[2] There are about 250 species.[3] The genus is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and has also naturalized in North America.[4] Some members of this group are known as catnip or catmint because of their effect on house cats – the nepetalactone contained in some Nepeta
Nepeta
species binds to the olfactory receptors of cats, typically resulting in temporary euphoria.[5]Contents1 Description 2 Selected species 3 Uses3.1 Cultivation4 References4.1 Further reading5 External linksDescription[edit] Most of the species are herbaceous perennial plants, but some are annuals
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Invasive Species
An invasive species is a plant, fungus, or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.[1][dubious – discuss] A study by Colautti et al. pointed out widely divergent perceptions of the criteria for invasive species among researchers (p. 135) and concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive" (p. 136).[2] Some of the alternate usages of the term are below:The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores)
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Calamintha
Calamintha is a genus of plants that belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Commonly called the calamints, there are about eight species in the genus (around 30 before revisions in taxonomy) which is native to the northern temperate regions of Europe, Asia and America. Calamintha species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora albitarsella.Contents1 Species 2 Uses 3 References 4 External linksSpecies[edit]Calamintha acinos - a synonym for Acinos arvensis, also called basil thyme Calamintha alpina - a synonym for Acinos alpinus, the Alpine Calamint Calamintha ascendens - a synonym for Calamintha sylvatica Calamintha ashei Calamintha baetica - a synonym for Calamintha sylvatica Calamintha baumgarteni Calamintha chinensis - a synonym for Clinopodium chinense Calamintha clinopodium - a synonym for Clinopodium vulgare, the Wild Basil Calamintha coccinea Calamintha dentata Calamintha exigua - a synonym for Acinos rotundifol
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Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Raceme
A raceme (/reɪˈsiːm/ or /rəˈsiːm/) is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.[1] In botany, an axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In indeterminate inflorescence-like racemes, the oldest flowers are borne towards the base and new flowers are produced as the shoot grows, with no predetermined growth limit.[2] A plant that flowers on a showy raceme may have this reflected in its scientific name, e.g. Cimicifuga racemosa
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Panicle
A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence.[1] Some authors distinguish it from a compound spike, by requiring that the flowers (and fruit) be pedicellate. The branches of a panicle are often racemes. A panicle may have determinate or indeterminate growth. This type of inflorescence is largely characteristic of grasses such as oat and crabgrass,[2] as well as other plants such as pistachio and mamoncillo. Botanists use the term paniculate in two ways: "having a true panicle inflorescence" as well as "having an inflorescence with the form but not necessarily the structure of a panicle". A corymb may have a paniculate branching structure, with the lower flowers having longer pedicels than the upper, thus giving a flattish top superficially resembling an umbel
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Stamen
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]Contents1 Morphology and terminology 2 Etymology 3 Variation in morphology 4 Pollen
Pollen
production 5 Sexual reproduction in plants 6 Descriptive terms 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMorphology and terminology[edit] A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are collectively called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Corolla (flower)
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe
Aloe
and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus
Phaseolus
have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals
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Gynoecium
Gynoecium
Gynoecium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of (one or more) pistils in a flower and is typically surrounded by the pollen-producing reproductive organs, the stamens, collectively called the androecium. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes (i.e. egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses, liverworts and hornworts
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Dracocephalum
Dracocephalum
Dracocephalum
is a genus of about 60[1] to 70 species[2][3] of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These flowers, collectively called dragonhead, are annual or perennial herbaceous plants or subshrubs, growing to 15 to 90 centimeters tall. Selected species[edit]D. aitchisonii Rech.f. D. argunense Fisch. ex Link D. aucheri Boiss. D. austriacum L. D. bipinnatum Rupr. D. botryoides Steven D. breviflorum Turrill D. bullatum Forrest ex Diels D. butkovii Krassovsk. D. calophyllum Hand.-Mazz. D. charkeviczii Prob. D. discolor Bunge D. diversifolium Rupr. D. ferganicum Lazkov D. foetidum Bunge D. formosum Gontsch. D. forrestii W.W.Sm. D. fragile Turcz. ex Benth. D. fruticulosum Steph
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Glechoma
Glechoma
Glechoma
is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, first described for modern science in 1753. It is distributed in northern Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
with a center of diversity in Asia, especially China. One species is naturalized in New Zealand
New Zealand
and in North America.[1][2][3][4] These plants are perennial herbs with stolons. The stems are prostrate or upright and bear leaf blades on long petioles. The inflorescences arising from the leaf axils have two to many flowers
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Ornamental Plant
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of these, called floriculture, forms a major branch of horticulture.Contents1 Garden
Garden
plants 2 Trees 3 Grasses 4 Cultivation 5 The term 6 References 7 External links Garden
Garden
plants[edit] Commonly, ornamental [garden] plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers, leaves, scent, overall foliage texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea
Rosa sericea
and cacti
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Perennial Plant
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.[1] The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials.[2] Perennials, especially small flowering plants, that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions
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Aphid
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Common names include greenfly and blackfly,[a] but the insects can also be brown or pink, and the group includes the fluffy white woolly aphids. A typical life cycle involves flightless females giving living birth to female nymphs without the involvement of males. Maturing rapidly, females breed profusely so that the number of these insects multiplies quickly. Winged females may develop later in the season, allowing the insects to colonise new plants. In temperate regions, a phase of sexual reproduction occurs in the autumn, with the insects often overwintering as eggs. The life cycle of some species involves an alternation between two host plants, for example between an annual crop and a woody plant. Some species feed on only one type of plant, while others are generalists, colonising many plant groups
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Larva
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(/ˌlɛpɪˈdɒptərə/ lep-i-DOP-tər-ə) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
are described, in 126 families[1] and 46 superfamilies,[2] 10% of the total described species of living organisms.[2][3] It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world.[4] The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution
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