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Mohammad Khatami
Seyyed MOHAMMAD KHATAMI (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی‎‎, pronounced ( listen ); born 29 September 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician . He served as the fifth President of Iran from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was an outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
's government. Little known until that point, Khatami attracted global attention during his first election to the presidency when he received almost 70% of the vote. Khatami had run on a platform of liberalization and reform. During his two terms as president, Khatami advocated freedom of expression , tolerance and civil society , constructive diplomatic relations with other states including those in Asia and the European Union , and an economic policy that supported a free market and foreign investment
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Iranian Reform Movement
The IRANIAN REFORMISTS (Persian : اصلاح‌طلبان‎, translit. Eslâh-Talabân‎) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami 's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy . Iran's "reform era" is sometimes said to have lasted from 1997 to 2005—the length of Khatami's two terms in office. The Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front is the main umbrella organization and coalition within the movement; however, there are reformist groups not aligned with the council, such as the Reformists Front . According to a poll conducted by the Iranian Students Polling Agency (ISPA) in April 2017, 28% of Iranians identify as leaning Reformist. In comparison, 15% identify as leaning Principlist
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Shia Islam
Others * Hurufism * Bektashi Order * Alawites
Alawites
* Qizilbash Shia
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: πολιτικα: Polis
Polis
definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. In most countries, people have formed political parties to put forward their ideas. There is usually some disagreement between people within a party, but they work together because they feel that they agree on enough things, and they will have more power if they join together. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders
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Freedom Of Expression
FREEDOM OF SPEECH is the right to articulate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship , or societal sanction. The term FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR). Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice"
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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Sayyid
SAYYID (also spelled SYED, SAIYED, SEYD, SAYED, SAYYAD, SAYYED, SAIYID, SEYED, SAID and SEYYED) (pronounced , Arabic : سيد‎‎; meaning Mister ) (plural Sadah Arabic : سادة‎‎, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people ( Sayyid
Sayyid
for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
combined Hasnain , :31 sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and his son-in-law Ali
Ali
( Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib). :149 Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah, or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
are given the title Amir or Mir, meaning commander, general, or prince
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Author
An AUTHOR is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer . More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. CONTENTS * 1 Legal significance of authorship * 2 Philosophical views of the nature of authorship * 3 Relationship with publisher * 3.1 Self-publishing * 3.1.1 Types * 3.1.1.1 Electronic (e-book) publishing * 3.1.1.2 Print-on-demand * 3.2 Traditional publishing * 3.3 Vanity publishing * 4 Relationship with editor * 5 Compensation * 6 See also * 7 References LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTHORSHIP A copyright certificate certifying the authorship for a proof of the Fermat theorem , issued by the State Department of Intellectual Property of Ukraine
Ukraine

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Scholar
The SCHOLARLY METHOD or SCHOLARSHIP is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching , research , and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, and is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 Ethical issues * 3 See also * 4 References METHODSOriginally started to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval theology , scholasticism is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning
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Islamic Republic Of Iran Army
Classified * MEI estimate (2011): 420,000 * 350,000 (Ground Force) * 37,000 (Air Force) * 18,000 (Navy) * 15,000 (Air Defense) EXPENDITURES BUDGET $2,036.91 million (1395 SH ) RELATED ARTICLES HISTORY * Military history of Iran
Iran
* History of the Iranian Air Force * History of the Iranian Navy RANKS * Army * Air Force * Navy * Air Defense The ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN ARMY (Persian : ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎) acronymed AJA (Persian : آجا‎‎), simply known as the IRANIAN ARMY or ARTESH (Persian : ارتش‎, translit. Arteš‎), is the "conventional military of Iran
Iran
" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
. The army is tasked to protect the territorial integrity of the Iranian state from external and internal threats and to project power
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Second Lieutenant
SECOND LIEUTENANT (called LIEUTENANT in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces , comparable to NATO OF-1b rank. CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Canada * 3 France * 4 Greece * 5 Indonesia
Indonesia
* 6 Israel * 7 Norway * 8 Pakistan * 9 United Kingdom and Commonwealth * 10 United States
United States
* 11 Insignia * 12 See also * 13 References AUSTRALIALike the United Kingdom, the rank of second lieutenant replaced the rank of ensign and cornet in 1871. The rank of second lieutenant was phased out in the Australian Regular Army in 1986. CANADAThe Canadian Forces adopted the rank with insignia of a single gold ring around the service dress uniform cuff for both army and air personnel upon unification in 1968 until the late 2000s
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Civil Society
CIVIL SOCIETY is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens". Civil society includes the family and the private sphere, referred to as the "third sector" of society , distinct from government and business. By other authors, "civil society" is used in the sense of 1) the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or 2) individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government. Sometimes the term civil society is used in the more general sense of "the elements such as freedom of speech, an independent judiciary, etc, that make up a democratic society" ( Collins English Dictionary
Collins English Dictionary
). Especially in the discussions among thinkers of Eastern and Central Europe, civil society is seen also as a concept of civic values
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Khatib
In Islam, a KHATIB, KHATEEB or HATIB (Arabic خطيب khaṭīb) is a person who delivers the sermon (khuṭbah) (literally "narration"), during the Friday prayer
Friday prayer
and Eid prayers . The khatib is usually the imam (prayer leader), but the two roles can be played by different people. There are no requirements of eligibility to become a khatib, although the person must be a male who has attained the age of puberty . It is also required that the khatib be in a state of physical purity (wuḍūʼ ). Women may be khateebahs. Edina Lekovic gave the inaugural khutba at the Women\'s Mosque in 2015. SEE ALSO * Khattab * Khutba * Khatib
Khatib
- a MRT train station in Singapore * Khatib
Khatib
- a village in Saudi ArabiaREFERENCES * ^ "The Ethical Soundscape". google.com. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ Street, Nick (3 February 2015)
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Musa Al-Sadr
Sayyid MUSA AL-SADR (Persian : Seyyed Musā Sadr ; سید موسى صدر‎‎, Arabic : السيد موسى الصدر‎‎; 4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978) was a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi\'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel . Born in the Cheharmardan neighborhood of Qom , Iran , he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran. He left Qom for Najaf to study theology and returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup d\'état . Some years later, Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Broujerdi and Hakim. Due to the lasting influence of his political and religious leadership in Lebanon , he has been referred to by Fouad Ajami as a "towering figure in modern Shi'i political thought and praxis". He gave the Shia population of Lebanon "a sense of community"
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