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Mohammad Khatami
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami
Mohammad Khatami
(Persian: سید محمد خاتمی‎, pronounced [ sejˈjed mohæmˈmæde xɒːtæˈmiː] ( listen); born 14 October 1943)[3][4][5][6] is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician. He served as the fifth President of Iran
President of Iran
from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was an outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's government.[7][8][9][10] Little known until that point, Khatami attracted global attention during his first election to the presidency when he received almost 70% of the vote.[11] Khatami had run on a platform of liberalization and reform
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Polytechnic University In Brooklyn
The New York University
New York University
Tandon School of Engineering (commonly referred to as Tandon) is the engineering and applied sciences school of New York University. Tandon is the second oldest private engineering and technology school in the United States.[2][3][4][5] The school dates back to 1854 when its predecessor institutions, the University of the City of New York[6] School of Civil Engineering and Architecture and the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, were founded.[7] On October 5, 2015, the school was renamed in honor of NYU Trustees Chandrika and Ranjan Tandon, following their donation of $100 million to the school.[8] NYU Tandon's main campus is in Brooklyn's MetroTech Center, an urban academic-industrial research park
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Muhammad
Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3] Muha
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Politics
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Civil Society
Civil society
Civil society
is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".[1] Civil society includes the family and the private sphere, referred to as the "third sector" of society, distinct from government and business.[2] By other authors, "civil society" is used in the sense of 1) the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or 2) individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government.[1] Sometimes the term civil society is used in the more general sense of "the elements such as freedom of speech, an independent judiciary, etc, that make up a democratic society" (Collins English Dictionary).[3] Especially in the discussions among thinkers of Eastern and Central Europe, civil society is seen also as a concept of civic values
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Shia Islam
Sunni
Sunni
theological traditionsIlm al-KalamAsh'ari1 Maturidi Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2Shi'a Twelver3PrinciplesTawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah QiyamahPracticesSalah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra


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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Sayyid
Sayyid
Sayyid
(also spelt Syed, Saiyed, Seyd, Sayed, Sayyad, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed, Said and Seyyed) (pronounced [səj.jɪd], Arabic: سيد‎; meaning Mister) (plural Sadah Arabic: سادة‎, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people ( Sayyid
Sayyid
for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
(combined Hasnain),[1]:31 sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and his son-in-law Ali
Ali
( Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib).[2]:149 Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah or Sharifa
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Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.Contents1 Australia 2 Canada 3 France 4 Greece 5 Indonesia 6 Israel 7 New Zealand 8 Norway 9 Pakistan 10 United Kingdom & other Commonwealth countries 11 United States 12 Insignia 13 See also 14 ReferencesAustralia[edit] The rank of second lieutenant existed in the military forces of the Australian colonies and Australian Army
Australian Army
until 1986. In the colonial forces, which closely followed the practices of the British military, the rank of second lieutenant began to replace ranks such as Ensign and Cornet from 1871. New appointments to the rank of second lieutenant ceased in the Regular Army in 1986.[1] Immediately prior to this change, the rank had been effectively reserved for new graduates from the Officer Cadet School, Portsea which closed in 1985
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Islamic Republic Of Iran Army
ClassifiedMEI estimate (2011): 420,000[7]350,000 (Ground Force) 37,000 (Air Force) 18,000 (Navy) 15,000 (Air Defense)ExpendituresBudget $2,036.91 million (1395 SH)[8]Related articlesHistoryMilitary history of Iran History of the Iranian Air Force History of the Iranian NavyRanksArmy Air Force Navy Air DefenseThe Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Army[9] (Persian: ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎) acronymed AJA (Persian: آجا‎), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Persian: ارتش‎, translit. Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran"[10] and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states
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Free Market
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. Proponents of the concept of free market contrast it with a regulated market, in which a government intervenes in supply and demand through various methods such as tariffs used to restrict trade and protect the economy. In an idealized free market economy, prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy. In scholarly debates, the concept of a free market is contrasted with the concept of a coordinated market in fields of study such as political economy, new institutional economics, economic sociology, and political science
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict
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Freedom Of Expression
Freedom
Freedom
of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.[2][3][4][5] The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom
Freedom
of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Minister Of Culture
A culture minister is a Cabinet position in governments. The culture minister is typically responsible for cultural policy, which often includes arts policy (direct and indirect support to artists and arts organizations) and measures to protect the national heritage of a country and cultural expression of a country or subnational region. This responsibility usually manifests in the accompanying ministry (also called a "department"), governing the following:an official registry of protected historic sites and other sites of cultural importance maintaining national archives of cultural work, including public museums, galleries and libraries creating a department or ministry of culture or arts creating arts councils, which disburse funding to artists and arts organization providing funding to artists and arts institutionsIn some countries or subnational jurisdictions (e.g., provinces or regions), the minister of culture may also be responsible for sport, youth issues, or tourism
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