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Microarchitecture
In electronics engineering and computer engineering , MICROARCHITECTURE, also called COMPUTER ORGANIZATION and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA) is implemented in a particular processor . A given ISA may be implemented with different microarchitectures; implementations may vary due to different goals of a given design or due to shifts in technology. Computer architecture
Computer architecture
is the combination of microarchitecture and instruction set
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Instruction Cycle
An INSTRUCTION CYCLE (sometimes called a FETCH–DECODE–EXECUTE CYCLE) is the basic operational process of a computer. It is the process by which a computer retrieves a program instruction from its memory , determines what actions the instruction dictates, and carries out those actions. This cycle is repeated continuously by a computer's central processing unit (CPU), from boot-up to when the computer is shut down. In simpler CPUs the instruction cycle is executed sequentially, each instruction being processed before the next one is started. In most modern CPUs the instruction cycles are instead executed concurrently , and often in parallel , through an instruction pipeline : the next instruction starts being processed before the previous instruction has finished, which is possible because the cycle is broken up into separate steps
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Cache (computing)
In computing , a CACHE /ˈkæʃ/ KASH , is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere. A cache hit occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a cache miss occurs when it cannot. Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache, which is faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store; thus, the more requests can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs. To be cost-effective and to enable efficient use of data, caches must be relatively small. Nevertheless, caches have proven themselves in many areas of computing because access patterns in typical computer applications exhibit the locality of reference
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Main Memory
COMPUTER DATA STORAGE, often called STORAGE or MEMORY, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. :15-16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , :468-473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage"; however, "memory" is sometimes also used when referring to persistent storage
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Hard Disk
A HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD), HARD DISK, HARD DRIVE or FIXED DISK is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters ) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads , usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces. Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially . HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage , retaining stored data even when powered off. Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956, HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Memory Controller
The MEMORY CONTROLLER is a digital circuit that manages the flow of data going to and from the computer's main memory . A memory controller can be a separate chip or integrated into another chip, such as being placed on the same die or as an integral part of a microprocessor ; in the latter case, it is usually called an INTEGRATED MEMORY CONTROLLER (IMC). A memory controller is sometimes also called a MEMORY CHIP CONTROLLER (MCC) or a MEMORY CONTROLLER UNIT (MCU)
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Peripheral
A PERIPHERAL is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer ". There are three different types of peripherals: * input devices , which interact with or send data from the user to the computer (mice, keyboards, etc.) * output devices , which provide output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etc.) * input/output devices that perform both functions.Touchscreens are an example that combines different devices into a single hardware component that can be used both as an input and output device. A peripheral device is generally defined as any auxiliary device such as a computer mouse or keyboard that connects to and works with the computer in some way. Other examples of peripherals are image scanners , tape drives , microphones , loudspeakers , webcams , and digital cameras
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Microcontroller
A MICROCONTROLLER (or MCU for microcontroller unit ) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit . In modern terminology, it is a system on a chip or SoC. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM , NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM
RAM
. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems
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Digital Signal Processor
A DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block ), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing . The goal of DSPs is usually to measure, filter or compress continuous real-world analog signals . Most general-purpose microprocessors can also execute digital signal processing algorithms successfully, but dedicated DSPs usually have better power efficiency thus they are more suitable in portable devices such as mobile phones because of power consumption constraints
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Floating Point Unit
A FLOATING-POINT UNIT (FPU, colloquially a MATH COPROCESSOR) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers . Typical operations are addition , subtraction , multiplication , division , square root , and bitshifting . Some systems (particularly older, microcode -based architectures) can also perform various transcendental functions such as exponential or trigonometric calculations, though in most modern processors these are done with software library routines. In general purpose computer architectures , one or more FPUs may be integrated as execution units within the central processing unit ; however many embedded processors do not have hardware support for floating-point operations
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SIMD
SINGLE INSTRUCTION, MULTIPLE DATA (SIMD), is a class of parallel computers in Flynn\'s taxonomy . It describes computers with multiple processing elements that perform the same operation on multiple data points simultaneously. Thus, such machines exploit data level parallelism , but not concurrency : there are simultaneous (parallel) computations, but only a single process (instruction) at a given moment. SIMD
SIMD
is particularly applicable to common tasks like adjusting the contrast in a digital image or adjusting the volume of digital audio . Most modern CPU
CPU
designs include SIMD
SIMD
instructions in order to improve the performance of multimedia use
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Computer Bus
In computer architecture , a BUS (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer , or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols. Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus . Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections, and can be wired in either a multidrop (electrical parallel) or daisy chain topology, or connected by switched hubs, as in the case of USB
USB

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Load-store Architecture
In computer engineering , a LOAD/STORE architecture divides instructions into 2 categories: memory access (load and store between memory and registers ), and ALU operations (which only occur between registers). :9-12 RISC systems such as PowerPC
PowerPC
, SPARC
SPARC
, RISC-V , ARM or MIPS use the load/store architecture. :9-12 For instance, in a load/store approach both operands and destination for an ADD operation must be in registers. This differs from a register memory architecture (used by CISC designs such as x86 ) in which one of the operands for the ADD operation may be in memory, while the other is in a register. :9-12 The earliest example of a load/store architecture was the CDC 6600
CDC 6600
. :54-56 Almost all vector processors (including many GPUs ) use the load/store approach
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Classic RISC Pipeline
In the history of computer hardware , some early reduced instruction set computer central processing units ( RISC
RISC
CPUs) used a very similar architectural solution, now called a CLASSIC RISC
RISC
PIPELINE. Those CPUs were: MIPS , SPARC
SPARC
, Motorola 88000 , and later the notional CPU DLX invented for education. Each of these classic scalar RISC
RISC
designs fetched and tried to execute one instruction per cycle . The main common concept of each design was a five-stage execution instruction pipeline . During operation, each pipeline stage worked on one instruction at a time. Each of these stages consisted of an initial set of flip-flops and combinational logic that operated on the outputs of those flip-flops
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SPARC
The SCALABLE PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE (SPARC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems . Since the establishment of SPARC International, Inc. in 1989, the SPARC
SPARC
architecture has been developed by its members. SPARC
SPARC
International is also responsible for licensing and promoting the SPARC
SPARC
architecture, managing SPARC
SPARC
trademarks (including SPARC, which it owns), and providing conformance testing . SPARC
SPARC
International was intended to open the SPARC
SPARC
architecture to create a larger ecosystem; and SPARC
SPARC
has been licensed to several manufacturers, including Atmel
Atmel
, Cypress Semiconductor , Fujitsu
Fujitsu
, and Texas Instruments
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MIPS Architecture
MIPS is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) :A-1 :19 developed by MIPS Technologies (formerly MIPS Computer Systems). The early MIPS architectures were 32-bit, with 64-bit versions added later. There are multiple versions of MIPS: including MIPS I, II, III, IV, and V; as well as five releases of MIPS32/64 (for 32- and 64-bit implementations, respectively). As of April 2017, the current version is MIPS32/64 Release 6. MIPS32/64 primarily differs from MIPS I–V by defining the privileged kernel mode System Control Coprocessor in addition to the user mode architecture
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