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Miacoidea
MIACOIDEA is a paraphyletic superfamily that had been traditionally divided into two families of carnivores : Miacidae
Miacidae
(the miacids) and Viverravidae . Miacoids were primitive carnivores that lived during the Paleocene
Paleocene
and Eocene
Eocene
Epochs, about 66-33 million years ago. Today, Miacidae
Miacidae
is recognized as a paraphyletic array of stem taxa that probably resulted in some "miacid" genera ending up just outside the order Carnivora
Carnivora
, the crown-group within the Carnivoramorpha
Carnivoramorpha
. Carnivoramorpha
Carnivoramorpha
consists of both Miacoidea
Miacoidea
and Carnivora, but excludes the order Creodonta that existed alongside Carnivoramorpha. Miacoids are regarded as basal carnivoramorphs
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Opossum
Several; see text The OPOSSUMS are marsupial mammals of the order DIDELPHIMORPHIA /daɪˌdɛlfᵻˈmɔːrfiə/ ). The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera . Opossums originated in South America, and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions
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Insectivores
An INSECTIVORE is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects . An alternative term is ENTOMOPHAGE, which also refers to the human practice of eating insects . The first insectivorous vertebrates were amphibians . When they evolved 400 million years ago, the first amphibians were piscivores , with numerous sharp conical teeth, much like a modern crocodile . The same tooth arrangement is however also suited for eating animals with exoskeletons , thus the ability to eat insects is an extension of piscivory. At one time, insectivorous mammals were scientifically classified in an order called Insectivora
Insectivora
. This order is now abandoned, as not all insectivorous mammals are closely related. Most of the Insectivora taxa have been reclassified; those that have not yet been reclassified remain in the order Eulipotyphla
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Arboreal
ARBOREAL LOCOMOTION is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal. The habitats pose numerous mechanical challenges to animals moving through them and lead to a variety of anatomical, behavioral and ecological consequences as well as variations throughout different species. Furthermore, many of these same principles may be applied to climbing without trees, such as on rock piles or mountains. The earliest known tetrapod with specializations that adapted it for climbing trees was Suminia , a synapsid of the late Permian
Permian
, about 260 million years ago. Some invertebrate animals are exclusively arboreal in habitat, such as the tree snail
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney , 1802 LIZARDS are a widespread group of squamate reptiles , with over 6,000 species , ranging across all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 m long Komodo dragon
Komodo dragon
. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Fibula
Superior and inferior tibiofibular joint Ankle
Ankle
IDENTIFIERS LATIN (os) fibula MESH A02.835.232.043.650.321 TA A02.5.07.001 FMA 24479 ANATOMICAL TERMS OF BONE The FIBULA (/ˈfɪbjᵿlə/ ) or CALF BONE is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia , with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia , below the level of the knee joint , and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia, and forms the lateral part of the ankle-joint
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Marten
See text Marten
Marten
ranges: * M. americana = cyan & teal * M. flavigula = dark blue & sepia * M. foina = rust, brown & sepia * M. gwatkinsii * M. martes = orange, rust & grass-green * M. melampus = yellow * M. pennanti = purple & teal * M. zibellina = green cf. Old English
Old English
mearþ, Old Norse
Old Norse
mörðr, and Old High German
Old High German
and Yiddish
Yiddish
מאַרדאַר mardar. DIETMartens are omnivorous animals related to wolverines , minks , badgers , ferrets , and weasels . Their diet consists of squirrels, mice, rabbits, birds, fish, insects, and eggs, and they will also eat fruit and nuts when these are available. Martens have also been known to break and enter ski resort cafes and steal bagged beef goulash and Snickers
Snickers
bars
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Civet
A CIVET /ˈsɪvᵻt/ is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet , Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals. A minority of writers use the name civet to cover Civettictis , Viverra and Viverricula civets. But in more common usage in English the name also covers Chrotogale , Cynogale , Diplogale , Hemigalus , Arctogalidia , Macrogalidia , Paguma , and Paradoxurus civets
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of organic matter , minerals , gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere , which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil
Soil
consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases
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Teeth
A TOOTH (plural TEETH) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths ) of many vertebrates and used to break down food . Some animals, particularly carnivores , also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums . Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm . The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians . In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side
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Tapocyon
TAPOCYON is an extinct genus of Miacidae , a family of primitive carnivores . Tapocyon was first discovered in Ventura County , when part of a jaw was found in the 1930s. A representative fossil of Tapocyon robustus was found in Oceanside, California . The animal was about the size of a coyote and is believed to have been a good climber that spent a lot of time in trees. Life reconstruction of Tapocyon robustus SOURCES * ^ Wesley, G. D.; Flynn, J. J. (2003). "A revision of Tapocyon (Carnivoramorpha), including analysis of the first cranial specimens and identification of a new species". Journal of Paleontology. 77 (4): 769–783. doi :10.1666/0022-3360(2003)0772.0.CO;2 . JSTOR 4094822 . * ^ A B C "Tapocyon robustus". San Diego Natural History Museum. Retrieved 11 March 2017. FURTHER READING * Gittleman, J. A., ed. 1996. Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing. * Halls, Kelly M. 2005
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Ziphacodon
ZIPHACODON is an extinct genus of Miacidae . The species Ziphacodon rugatus was first described by Marsh in 1872. Probably a junior synonym of Viverravus gracilis. SOURCES * Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level: Above the Species by Malcolm C. McKenna, Susan K
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Oodectes
OODECTES is an extinct genus of Miacidae . NOTES * ^ Giles T. MacIntyre & Daniel A. Guthrie (1979). "Paeneprolimnocyon Guthrie, 1967, a junior synonym of Oodectes Wortman, 1901". Journal of Paleontology . 53 (4): 1034–1036. JSTOR 304127 . SOURCES * findarticles.com * Fossil Mammalia of the Huerfano Formation, Eocene, of Colorado by Peter Robinson * nmnaturalhistory.org * paleobackup.nceas.ucsb.edu:8110 This prehistoric mammal -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Ictognathus
ICTOGNATHUS is an extinct genus of Miacidae . REFERENCES * ^ Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology , Part 2, Volume 1. By Raymond Cecil Moore, Curt Teichert. Published by the Geological Society of America, 1953. ISBN 0813730287 /ISBN 9780813730288 . This prehistoric mammal -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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