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Miacoidea
Miacoidea
Miacoidea
is a paraphyletic superfamily that had been traditionally divided into two families of carnivores: Miacidae
Miacidae
(the miacids) and Viverravidae. Miacoids were primitive carnivores that lived during the Paleocene
Paleocene
and Eocene
Eocene
Epochs, about 66-33 million years ago. Today, Miacidae
Miacidae
is recognized as a paraphyletic array of stem taxa that probably resulted in some "miacid" genera ending up just outside the order Carnivora, the crown-group within the Carnivoramorpha. Carnivoramorpha
Carnivoramorpha
consists of both Miacoidea
Miacoidea
and Carnivora, but excludes the order Creodonta
Creodonta
that existed alongside Carnivoramorpha. Miacoids are regarded as basal carnivoramorphs
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Shrew
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla. True shrews are not to be confused with West Indies shrews, treeshrews, otter shrews, or elephant shrews, which belong to different families or orders. Although its external appearance is generally that of a long-nosed mouse, a shrew is not a rodent, as mice are. It is in fact a much closer relative of hedgehogs and moles, and related to rodents only in that both belong to the Boreoeutheria
Boreoeutheria
Magnorder
Magnorder
(along with humans, monkeys, cats, dogs, horses, rhinos, cows, pigs, whales, bats and others)
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Arboreal
Arboreal locomotion
Arboreal locomotion
is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal
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Marten
See text Marten
Marten
ranges:M. americana = cyan & teal M. flavigula = dark blue & sepia M. foina = rust, brown & sepia M. gwatkinsii M. martes = orange, rust & grass-green M. melampus = yellow M. pennanti = purple & teal M. zibellina = green & grass-greenThe martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in taigas, and are found in coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractible claws
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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney, 1802Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species,[1] ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenia
which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Opossum
Several; see textDiversity108 speciesThe opossum (/əˈpɒsəm/) is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia (/daɪˌdɛlfɪˈmɔːrfiə/) endemic to the Americas. The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera. Opossums originated in South America
South America
and entered North America
North America
in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents
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Insectivores
An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.[1] An alternative term is entomophage,[2] which also refers to the human practice of eating insects. The first insectivorous vertebrates were amphibians. When they evolved 400 million years ago, the first amphibians were piscivores, with numerous sharp conical teeth, much like a modern crocodile. The same tooth arrangement is however also suited for eating animals with exoskeletons, thus the ability to eat insects is an extension of piscivory.[3] At one time, insectivorous mammals were scientifically classified in an order called Insectivora. This order is now abandoned, as not all insectivorous mammals are closely related. Most of the Insectivora taxa have been reclassified; those that have not yet been reclassified remain in the order Eulipotyphla. Although individually small, insects exist in enormous numbers - they number over a million described species[4]:1958 and some of those species occur in enormous numbers
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Soil
Soil
Soil
is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.[1] The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone
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Calcaneum
In humans, the calcaneus (/kælˈkeɪniəs/; from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel[1]) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel. In some other animals, it is the point of the hock.Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 Disease 5 See also 6 Additional images 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksStructure[edit] In humans, the calcaneus is the largest of the tarsal bones and the largest bone of the foot. The talus bone, calcaneus, and navicular bone are considered the proximal row of tarsal bones.[2] In the calcaneus, several important structures can be distinguished:[2] The half of the bone closest to the heel is the calcaneal tubercle. On its lower edge on either side are its lateral and medial processes (serving as the origins of the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi)
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Teeth
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is also found in some fish, and in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, however, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side
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Skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Eosictis
Eosictis is an extinct genus of Miacidae. It was first named by Scott in 1945, and contains one species, Eosictis avinoffi. Sources[edit]taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl paleodb.orgTaxon identifiersWd: Q3762001 GBIF: 4833410This prehistoric mammal-related article is a stub
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Ictognathus
Ictognathus is an extinct genus of Miacidae.[1] References[edit]^ Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part 2, Volume 1. By Raymond Cecil Moore, Curt Teichert. Published by the Geological Society of America, 1953. ISBN 0813730287/ISBN 9780813730288.This prehistoric mammal-related article is a stub
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