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Merya
The Volga
Volga
Finns
Finns
(sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns)[1] are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia
Russia
living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages. Their modern representatives are the Mari people, the Erzya and the Moksha Mordvins,[2][3] as well as extinct Merya, Muromian and Meshchera people.[4] The Permians
Permians
are sometimes also grouped as Volga
Volga
Finns. The modern representatives of Volga
Volga
Finns
Finns
live in the basins of the Sura and Moksha rivers, as well as (in smaller numbers) in the interfluve between the Volga
Volga
and the Belaya rivers
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Genetic Relationship (linguistics)
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family. The term genealogical relationship is sometimes used to avoid confusion with the unrelated use of the term in biological genetics. Languages that possess genetic ties with one another belong to the same linguistic grouping, known as a language family. These ties are established through use of the comparative method of linguistic analysis. Two languages are considered to be genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. For example, Italian is descended from Latin. Italian and Latin
Latin
are therefore said to be genetically related. Spanish is also descended from Latin. Therefore, Spanish and Italian are genetically related
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Kama River
Coordinates: 55°21′50″N 49°59′52″E / 55.36389°N 49.99778°E / 55.36389; 49.99778KamaMap of the Volga's watershed with the Kama;s watershed highlightedCountry RussiaPhysical characteristicsMain source Udmurtia 360 m (1,180 ft)River mouth Volga RiverLength 1,805 km (1,122 mi)DischargeAverage rate: 4,100 cubic metres per second (140,000 cu ft/s)Basin featuresBasin size 507,000 km2 (196,000 sq mi)The Kama (Russian: река́ Ка́ма, IPA: [ˈkamə]; Tatar: Чулман; Udmurt: Кам) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; it is larger than the Volga before their junction. It starts in the Udmurt Republic, near Kuliga, flowing northwest for 200 kilometres (120 mi), turning northeast near Loyno for another 200 kilometres (120 mi), then turning south and west in P
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Mari El
The Mari El
Mari El
Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл, Respublika Mariy El; Meadow Mari: Марий Эл Республик; Hill Mari: Мары Эл Республик) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic). It is geographically located in the European Russia
Russia
region of the country, along the northern bank of the Volga River, and is administratively part of the Volga Federal District. The Mari El
Mari El
Republic has a population of 696,459 (2010 Census).[8] Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
is the capital and the largest city of the Republic Mari El
Mari El
is one of Russia's ethnic republics, primarily representing the indigenous Mari people, a Finno-Ugric
Finno-Ugric
ethnic group who have traditionally lived along the Volga River
Volga River
and Kama River
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Tatarstan
The Republic of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
(Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н, tr. Respublika Tatarstan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə tətɐrˈstan]; Tatar: Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga
Volga
Federal District. Its capital is the city of Kazan. The republic borders Kirov, Ulyanovsk, Samara, and Orenburg Oblasts, the Mari El, Udmurt, and Chuvash Republics, and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The area of the republic is 68,000 square kilometres (26,000 sq mi)
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Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International, a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization
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MediaWiki
Media Wiki
Wiki
is a free and open-source wiki software. Originally developed by Magnus Manske
Magnus Manske
and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker, it runs on many websites, including, Wiktionary
Wiktionary
and Wikimedia Commons.[5][6] It is written in the PHP
PHP
programming language and stores the contents into a database. Like WordPress, which is based on a similar licensing and architecture, it has become the dominant software in its category
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Areal (linguistics)
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language. Contents1 Characteristics 2 Examples 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Resemblances between two or more languages (whether in typology or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation (descent from a common ancestor language), to borrowing between languages, to retention of features when a population adopts a new language, or simply to chance. When little or no direct documentation of ancestor languages is available, determining whether a similarity is genetic or areal can be difficult
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Björn Collinder
Björn Collinder
Björn Collinder
(22 July 1894 - 20 May 1983) was a Swedish linguist. His name is sometimes spelled "Bjorn Collinder" in English-language contexts. Collinder was born in Sundsvall, Sweden. For much of his life he was a professor of Finno-Ugric languages
Finno-Ugric languages
at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
in Sweden. He was one of the world's leading experts in the Uralic languages, noted for his Comparative Grammar of the Uralic Languages (1960), which is still often cited today. He died in Vienna, Austria. Selected works[edit]1929. Über den finnisch-lappischen Quantitätswechsel I. Uppsala. 1934. Indo-uralisches Sprachgut. Uppsala. 1938. Lautlehre des waldlappischen dialektes von Gällivare. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen Seura. (= Mémoires de la Société finno-ougrienne 74.) 1939. Reichstürkische Lautstudien. Uppsala. 1940. Jukagirisch und Uralisch
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Harald Haarmann
Harald Haarmann (born 1946) is a German linguist and cultural scientist who lives and works in Finland. Haarmann studied general linguistics, various philological disciplines and prehistory at the universities of Hamburg, Bonn, Coimbra and Bangor. He obtained his PhD in Bonn
Bonn
(1970) and his habilitation (qualification at professorship level) in Trier (1979). He taught and conducted research at a number of German and Japanese universities and is a member of the Research Centre on Multilingualism in Brussels. Since 2003, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Archaeomythology (headquartered in Sebastopol, California) and director of its European branch (based in Luumäki, Finland). Haarmann is the author of more than 40 books in German, English, Spanish, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and nearly 200 articles and essays in ten languages. He has also edited and co-edited some 20 anthologies
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Robert Austerlitz
Robert Paul Austerlitz (December 13, 1923 – September 9, 1994) was a noted Romanian-American
Romanian-American
linguist. Born in Bucarest, he emigrated to the United States
United States
in 1938. In June 1950, he received a Master of Arts from Columbia University, where he studied under André Martinet. With funding from the Ford Foundation, he studied the Uralic and Altaic languages at the University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
from 1951 to 1953 and Nivkh and Hokkaido at the University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
from 1953 to 1954.Contents1 Life 2 Publications 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He earned his doctorate from the Department of Uralic and Altaic languages at Columbia University
Columbia University
in December 1955
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Bashkortostan
The Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
(/bɑːʃˈkɔːrtoʊstæn/; Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr. Respublika Bashkortostan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bəʂkərtɐˈstan]; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also historically known as Bashkiria (Russian: Башки́рия, tr. Bashkiriya, IPA: [bɐʂˈkʲirʲɪjə]), is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic (state)). It is located between the Volga River
Volga River
and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With a population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is the most populous republic in Russia.[9] Bashkurdistan, the first ethnic autonomy in Russia, was established on November 28 [O.S
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Golden Ring
The Golden Ring
Golden Ring
(Russian: Золото́е кольцо́) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia. They formerly comprised the region known as Zalesye. These ancient towns, which also played a significant role in the formation of the Russian Orthodox Church, preserve the memory of the most important and significant events in Russian history. The towns have been called "open-air museums" and feature unique monuments of Russian architecture of the 12th–18th centuries, including kremlins, monasteries, cathedrals, and churches
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Moscow Oblast
Moscow
Moscow
Oblast (Russian: Моско́вская о́бласть, tr. Moskovskaya oblast, IPA: [mɐˈskofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]), or Podmoskovye[15] (Russian: Подмоско́вье, IPA: [pədmɐˈskovʲjə], literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(an oblast)
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Tatar Language
 Russia TatarstanRegulated by Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of TatarstanLanguage codesISO 639-1 ttISO 639-2 tatISO 639-3 tat – inclusive code Individual code: sty – Siberian TatarGlottolog tata1255[2]Linguasphere 44-AAB-beThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.The Tatar
Tatar
language (Tatar: татар теле; татарча)[3] is a Turkic language
Turkic language
spoken by Tatars
Tatars
mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
and Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Oblast, Siberia
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