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Marathi People
The Marathi people
Marathi people
(Marathi: मराठी लोक) are an ethnic group that speak Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language. They inhabit the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
as well as districts bordering the state, such as Belagava and Karwar
Karwar
of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Madagava of Goa
Goa
states in western India.[3] Their language, Marathi, is part of the Southern branch of Indo-Aryan languages
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Khalji Dynasty
The Khalji or Khilji[a] dynasty was a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between 1290 and 1320.[2][3][4] It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
of India
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Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
(IAST: Pulakeśin, 610–642 CE), also spelt Pulakesi II and Pulikeshi II, was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty. During his reign, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami
Badami
saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan.Contents1 Early life and accession 2 Consolidation 3 Expansion3.1 Xuanzang's description 3.2 Conquests in the West 3.3 Eastern Deccan 3.4 Southern Expedition 3.5 Battle with Harsha4 Reversals 5 Pulakeshin's death and legacy 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 ReferencesEarly life and accession[edit] Ereya, who assumed the name Pulakeshi on his coronation, was born to the Chalukya
Chalukya
king Kirtivarma I
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Harsha
Harsha
Harsha
(c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India
North India
from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Pushyabhuti dynasty; and was the son of Prabhakarvardhana who defeated the Alchon Huna invaders,[2] and the younger brother of Rajyavardhana, a king of Thanesar, present-day Haryana
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Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
(reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
throne following the death of his father. This information comes from the Lakshmeshwar inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
dated January 13, 735 A.D.[1] From inscriptions it has come to be known that even before his coronation, Vikramaditya II, as a crown prince (Yuvaraja), had conducted successful military campaigns against their arch enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. His most important achievements were the capture of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
on three occasions, the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II
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Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga
Gulbarga
region in modern Karnataka
Karnataka
as its base
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Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I (also known as Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
Nrupathunga I ) (800–878 CE) was a Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
emperor, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great emperors of India. His reign of 64 years is one of the longest precisely dated monarchical reigns on record. Many Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholars prospered during his rule, including the great Indian mathematician Mahaviracharya who wrote Ganita-sara-samgraha, Jinasena, Virasena, Shakatayan and Sri Vijaya (a Kannada
Kannada
language theorist).[2] Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
I was an accomplished poet and scholar. He wrote (or co-authored) the Kavirajamarga, the earliest extant literary work in Kannada,[3][4] and Prashnottara Ratnamalika, a religious work in Sanskrit
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Western Chalukya Empire
The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami
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Chola Dynasty
List of Chola
Chola
kings and emperorsEarly CholasEllalan Kulakkottan Ilamchetchenni Karikala Nedunkilli Nalankilli Killivalavan Kopperuncholan Kochchenganan PerunarkilliInterregnum (c. 200 – c. 848)Medieval CholasVijayalaya 848–891(?)Aditya I 891–907Parantaka I 907–950Gandaraditya 950–957Arinjaya 956–957Sundara (Parantaka II) 957–970Aditya II (co-regent)Uttama 970–985Rajaraja I 985–1014Rajendra I 1012–1044Rajadhiraja 1044–1054Rajendra II 1054–1063Virarajendra 1063–1070Athi
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Seuna Dynasty
The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra). The Yadavas initially ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas. Around the middle of the 12th century, as the Chalukya power waned, they declared independence and established rule that reached its peak under Singhana II.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origin 3 History3.1 As feudatories 3.2 Bhillama V 3.3 Singhana II 3.4 Ramachandra 3.5 Fall of the kingdom4 Rulers4.1 Feudatories 4.2 Sovereigns 4.3 Khalji tributaries5 Literature5.1 Marathi 5.2 Kannada 5.3 Sanskrit6 References6.1 Bibliography7 External linksEtymology[edit] The Seuna dynasty claimed descent from the Yadavas and therefore, its kings are often referred to as the "Yadavas of Devgiri"
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Devagiri
Daulatabad, also known as Devagiri, is a 14th-century fort city in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state of India, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) northwest of Aurangabad.[1][2][3] The place was originally named Devagiri [4][5] when it was an important uplands city along caravan routes (ca. sixth century AD), but the intervening centuries have reduced it to a village. However it is also considered to be one of the seven wonders of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and a developing tourist spot.[6][7][8][9] The historical triangular fort of Daulatabad was built by first Yadava king Bhillama V in 1187.[10] Starting 1327, it famously remained the capital of Tughlaq dynasty, under Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
(r
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Tughlaq
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editDelhi SultanateRuling dynastiesMamluk dynastyQutb al-Din Aibak 1206–1210Aram Shah 1210–1211Iltutmish 1211–1236Rukn ud din Firuz 1236Razia Sultana 1236-1240Muiz ud din Bahram 1240–1242Ala ud din Masud 1242–1246Nasir ud din Mahmud 1246–1266Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266–1287Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287–1290Shamsuddin Kayumars 1290Khalji dynastyJalaluddin 1290–1296Alauddin 1296–1316Shihabuddin Omar 1316Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah 1316–1320Khusro Khan 1320Tughlaq dynastyGhiyath al-Din Tughluq 1320–1325Muhammad bin Tughluq 1325–1351Firuz Shah Tughlaq 1351–1388Tughluq
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Bahamani Sultanate
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.[3] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India.[4] The empire was established by Turkic general Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.[5] Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Hasanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan
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Deccan Sultanates
The Deccan sultanates
Deccan sultanates
were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates
Deccan sultanates
were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River
Krishna River
and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate.[1][2] In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda
Golkonda
became independent in 1518 and Bidar
Bidar
in 1528.[3] In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year. Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota
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