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Magma
Magma
Magma
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids[1] that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals, dissolved gas and sometimes gas bubbles. Magma
Magma
often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano or solidify underground to form an intrusion
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Potassium
Potassium
Potassium
is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form salts. Potassium
Potassium
in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac-colored flame
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Lamproite
Lamproite
Lamproite
is an ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic or subvolcanic rock. It has low CaO, Al2O3, Na2O, high K2O/Al2O3, a relatively high MgO content and extreme enrichment in incompatible elements. Lamproites are geographically widespread yet are volumetrically insignificant. Unlike kimberlites, which are found exclusively in Archaean cratons, lamproites are found in terrains of varying age, ranging from Archaean in Western Australia, to Palaeozoic and Mesozoic in southern Spain
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Barium
Barium
Barium
is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern history as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both insoluble in water. The name barium originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς (barys), meaning "heavy." Baric is the adjectival form of barium. Barium
Barium
was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis. Barium
Barium
has few industrial applications
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Rheid
A rheid /ˈriːɪd/ is a substance whose temperature is below the melting point and whose deformation by viscous flow during the time of observation is at least three orders of magnitude (1,000 ×) greater than the elastic deformation under the given conditions. A material is a rheid by virtue of the time of observation. The term, which was coined by S. Warren Carey in 1953, has the same Greek root as rheology, the science of viscoelasticity and nonlinear flow. Types of rheids[edit] Almost any type of rock can behave as a rheid under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure. For example, the Earth's mantle undergoes convection over long time scales. As the mantle supports the propagation of shear waves, it may be deduced that it is a solid and, therefore, behaving as a rheid when it undergoes said convection
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Outer Core
The outer core of the Earth
Earth
is a fluid layer about 2,400 km (1,500 mi)[1] thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle. Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km (1,800 mi) beneath Earth's surface. The transition between the inner core and outer core is located approximately 5,150 km (3,200 mi) beneath the Earth's surface. Unlike the inner core, the outer core is liquid
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Caesium
Caesium
Caesium
(British spelling and IUPAC spelling[6]) or cesium (American spelling)[note 1] is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.[note 2] Caesium
Caesium
has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The most reactive of all metals, it is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133
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Calcium
Calcium
Calcium
is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Mixtures
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions and colloids.[1][2] Mixtures are one product of a mechanical blending or mixing chemical substances such as elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup.[3] Despite that there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point, may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by using physical (mechanical or thermal) means
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Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. "Orthosilicate" is the anion SiO4− 4 or its compounds. Related to orthosilicate are families of anions (and their compounds) with the formula [SiO2+n]2n−. Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates [SiO3]2− n and the sheet-forming silicates [SiO2.5]− n.[1] Silicates constitute the majority of Earth's crust, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids. Sand, Portland cement, and thousands of minerals are examples of silicates. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large
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Sodium
Sodium
Sodium
is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl)
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Sill (geology)
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. A sill is a concordant intrusive sheet, meaning that a sill does not cut across preexisting rock beds. Stacking of sills builds a sill complex [1] and a large magma chamber at high magma flux.[2] In contrast, a dike is a discordant intrusive sheet, which does cut across older rocks. Sills are fed by dikes, except in unusual locations where they form in nearly vertical beds attached directly to a magma source. The rocks must be brittle and fracture to create the planes along which the magma intrudes the parent rock bodies, whether this occurs along preexisting planes between sedimentary or volcanic beds or weakened planes related to foliation in metamorphic rock
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Lamprophyre
Lamprophyres (Greek λαµπρός (lamprós) = "bright" and φύρω (phýro) = to mix) are uncommon, small volume ultrapotassic igneous rocks primarily occurring as dikes, lopoliths, laccoliths, stocks and small intrusions. They are alkaline silica-undersaturated mafic or ultramafic rocks with high magnesium oxide, >3% potassium oxide, high sodium oxide and high nickel and chromium. Lamprophyres occur throughout all geologic eras. Archaean examples are commonly associated with lode gold deposits
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Tephra
Tephra
Tephra
is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size or emplacement mechanism.[1] Tephra
Tephra
horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.Volcanologists also refer to airborne fragments as pyroclasts. Once clasts have fallen to the ground they remain as tephra unless hot enough to fuse together into pyroclastic rock or tuff.A 2007 eruptive plume at Mount Etna
Mount Etna
producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs.Contents1 Overview 2 Classification 3 Etymology 4 Notes 5 External linksOverview[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Natural Satellite
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System
Solar System
body). In the Solar System
Solar System
there are six planetary satellite systems containing 175 known natural satellites.[1][2] Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are also known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.[3] As of October 2016[update], there are over 300 minor planets known to have moons.[4] The Earth– Moon
Moon
system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon
Moon
to the mass of Earth
Earth
is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System
Solar System
(although there are minor-planet systems with even greater ratios, notably the Pluto–Charon system)
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