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Louis XIV
LOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (Louis le Grand) or the SUN KING (le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history . In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France
France
was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin . An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Sun King (song)
"SUN KING" is a song written primarily by John Lennon
John Lennon
, but credited to Lennon–McCartney and recorded by the Beatles for their 1969 album Abbey Road . It is the second song of side two's climactic medley. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Musical structure * 3 "Gnik Nus" * 4 Personnel * 5 Cover versions * 6 References * 7 External links BACKGROUNDLike other tracks on the album (notably "Because ") the song features lush multi-tracked vocal harmonies, provided by Lennon, Paul McCartney and George Harrison
George Harrison
. The working title was " Here Comes the Sun King", :182 but was shortened to "Sun King" to avoid confusion with Harrison's " Here Comes the Sun ". The song slowly fades in from the harbour sounds at the end of " You Never Give Me Your Money "
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Nobility
NOBILITY is a social class , normally ranked immediately under royalty , that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary . The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence ), and vary by country and era. The Medieval
Medieval
chivalric motto "noblesse oblige ", meaning literally "nobility obligates", explains that privileges carry a lifelong obligation of duty to uphold various social responsibilities of, e.g., honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership roles or positions, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond
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Jean De La Fontaine
JEAN DE LA FONTAINE (IPA: ; 8 July 1621 – 13 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his Fables , which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France, and in French regional languages. After a long period of royal suspicion, he was admitted to the French Academy and his reputation in France
France
has never faded since. Evidence of this is found in the many pictures and statues of the writer, as well as later depictions on medals, coins and postage stamps
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Marin Marais
MARIN MARAIS (French: ; 31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player. He studied composition with Jean-Baptiste Lully
Jean-Baptiste Lully
, often conducting his operas, and with master of the bass viol Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe for six months. In 1676 he was hired as a musician to the royal court of Versailles and was moderately successful there, being appointed in 1679 as ordinaire de la chambre du roy pour la viole, a title he kept until 1725. He was the father of the composer Roland Marais (c. 1685 – c. 1750). CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Works * 2.1 Instrumental music * 2.2 Operas * 2.3 Sacred works * 3 Discography * 4 References in film * 5 References * 6 External links CAREER Marin Marais
Marin Marais
was a master of the viol, and the leading French composer of music for the instrument
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Centralized Government
A CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT (also CENTRALISED GOVERNMENT (non-Oxford spelling )) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which FEDERAL STATES , local authorities , and smaller units are considered subject. In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically sovereign nation state . Menes , an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period , is credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt , and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I), became the first ruler to institute a centralized government. All constituted governments are, to some degree, necessarily centralized, in the sense that a theoretically federal state exerts an authority or prerogative beyond that of its constituent parts
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Coronation
A CORONATION is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia , marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil , or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible
Bible
. The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event
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List Of Longest-reigning Monarchs
This is a LIST OF THE LONGEST-REIGNING MONARCHS of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who've reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign
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Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. SAINT-DENIS (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris
Paris
, France
France
. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris
Paris
. Saint- Denis
Denis
is a subprefecture (French : sous-préfecture) of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis , being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint- Denis
Denis
. Saint- Denis
Denis
is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint Denis
Denis
and was also the location of the associated abbey
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Roman Catholicism
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
NICOLAS BOILEAU-DESPRéAUX (French: ; 1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as BOILEAU, was a French poet and critic . He did much to reform the prevailing form of French poetry, in the same way that Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
did to reform the prose. He was greatly influenced by Horace
Horace
. CONTENTS * 1 Family and education * 2 1660s * 3 1670s * 4 1700–1711 * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links FAMILY AND EDUCATIONBoileau was the fifteenth child of Gilles Boileau, a clerk in the parlement. Two of his brothers attained some distinction: Gilles Boileau , the author of a translation of Epictetus
Epictetus
; and Jacques Boileau , who became a canon of the Sainte-Chapelle
Sainte-Chapelle
, and made valuable contributions to church history
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe
Europe
and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution
Revolution
profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies
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Claude Perrault
CLAUDE PERRAULT (25 September 1613 – 9 October 1688) was a French architect, best known for his participation in the design of the east façade of the Louvre
Louvre
in Paris. He also achieved success as a physician and anatomist , and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Bibliography * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYPerrault was born and died in Paris. Aside from his influential architecture, he became well known for his translation of the ten books of Vitruvius , the only surviving Roman work on architecture , into French, written at the instigation of Colbert , and published, with Perrault's annotations, in 1673. His treatise on the five classical orders of architecture followed in 1683
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Château De Saint-Germain-en-Laye
The CHâTEAU DE SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a royal palace in the commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , in the département of Yvelines , about 19 km west of Paris
Paris
, France
France
. Today, it houses the musée d\'Archéologie nationale (National Museum of Archaeology). CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 12th–13th centuries * 1.2 16th–18th centuries * 1.3 19th–21st centuries * 2 Gallery * 3 Notes * 4 External links HISTORY12TH–13TH CENTURIES Sainte-Chapelle. The first castle , named the Grand Châtelet, was built on the site by Louis VI in around 1122. The castle was expanded by Louis IX of France
France
in the 1230s. Louis IX's chapelle Saint Louis at the castle belongs to the Rayonnant phase of French Gothic architecture
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