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Longhua Temple
The Longhua Temple
Temple
(Chinese: 龙华寺; pinyin: Lónghúa Sì; Shanghainese: Lon-ngu-zy, literally "Lustre of the Dragon Temple") is a Buddhist Temple
Temple
dedicated to the Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha located in Shanghai, China. Although most of the present-day buildings date from later reconstructions, the temple preserves the architectural design of a Song dynasty
Song dynasty
monastery of the Chan School. It is the largest, most authentic and complete ancient temple complex in the city of Shanghai.Longhua Temple
Temple
inner courtyardContents1 History 2 Architectural design and artwork 3 Longhua Pagoda 4 Temple
Temple
fair 5 Location 6 In popular culture 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]Newly constructed front gate of Longhua
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Renminbi
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB; simplified Chinese: 人民币; traditional Chinese: 人民幣; pinyin:  rénmínbì; literally: "people's currency"; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China. The yuan (Chinese: 元; pinyin: yuán) is the basic unit of the renminbi, but is also used to refer to the Chinese currency
Chinese currency
generally, especially in international contexts where "Chinese yuan" is widely used to refer to the renminbi. The distinction between the terms renminbi and yuan is similar to that between sterling and pound, which respectively refer to the British currency and its primary unit.[4] One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao (Chinese: 角; pinyin: jiǎo), and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen (Chinese: 分; pinyin: fēn). The renminbi is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of China.[5] Until 2005, the value of the renminbi was pegged to the US dollar
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Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
(/ˌʌvloʊkɪˈteɪʃvərə, ˌʌvə-/ UV-loh-kih-TAY-shvər-ə, UV-ə-;[1] Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. This bodhisattva is variably depicted, described and is portrayed in different cultures as either female or male.[2] In Chinese Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
has become the somewhat different female figure Guanyin
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Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Nationalists (including regional warlords):1,700,000 (1937)[1] 2,600,000 (1939)[2] 5,700,000 (1945)[3] Chinese Communists:166,700 (1938)[4] 488,744 (1940)[5] 1,200,000 (1945)[6] Japanese:600,000 (1937)[7] 1,015,000 (1939)[8] 1,124,900 (1945)[9] (excluding Burma campaign
Burma campaign
and Manchuria) Puppet states and collaborators: 900,000 (1945)[10]Casualties and lossesChinese Nationalists:Official ROC data:1,320,000 killed 1,797,000 wounded 120,000 missing Total: 3,237,000[11][12]Othe
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Great Britain
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world.[5][note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan.[7][8] The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.[9] The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and constitutes most of its territory.[10] Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island
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Allies Of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations
United Nations
from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom, and dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions
Dominions
of the British Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.[1] After the start of the German invasion of North Europe till the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium, Greece, and Yugoslavia joined the Allies
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Budai
Budai, Hotei or Pu-Tai[1][2] (Chinese and Japanese: 布袋; pinyin: Bùdài; rōmaji: Hotei[3]; Vietnamese: Bố Đại) is a Chinese folkloric deity. His name means "Cloth Sack",[3] and comes from the bag that he is conventionally depicted as carrying
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Four Heavenly Kings
The Four Heavenly Kings
Four Heavenly Kings
are four Buddhist gods, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world. In Chinese, they are known collectively as the "Fēng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn" (simplified Chinese: 风调雨顺; traditional Chinese: 風調雨順; literally: "Good climate") or "Sì Dà Tiānwáng" (Chinese: 四大天王; literally: "Four Great Heavenly Kings") in the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language they are called the "Chaturmaharaja" (चतुर्महाराज), or Caturmaharajikadeva: Four Great Heavenly Kings
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Mahavira
Mahavira
Mahavira
(/məˌhɑːˈvɪərə/; IAST: Bhagavān Mahāvīra), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford-maker) of Jainism. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira
Mahavira
was born in the early part of the 6th century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar, India. At the age of thirty, abandoning all worldly possessions, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening and became an ascetic. For the next twelve and a half years, Mahavira
Mahavira
practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience). He preached for thirty years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th century BC
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Shakyamuni
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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Guanyin
Guanyin
Guanyin
or Guan Yin (/ˌɡwɑːnˈjɪn/[1]) is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated by Mahayana Buddhists and followers of Chinese folk religions, also known as the "Goddess of Mercy" in English
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Arhat
Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy"[1] or as a "perfected person"[1][2] having attained nirvana.[2][1] Other Buddhist traditions have used the term for people far advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full Buddhahood.[3] The understanding of the concept has changed over the centuries, and varies between different schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
and different regions. A range of views on the attainment of arhats existed in the early Buddhist schools
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Amitabha
Amitābha[2] ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation: [əmiˈt̪aːbʱə]), also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Amitābha
Amitābha
is the principal buddha in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of East Asian Buddhism. In Vajrayana Buddhism, Amitābha
Amitābha
is known for his longevity attribute, magnetising red fire element, the aggregate of discernment, pure perception and the deep awareness of emptiness of phenomena
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