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Kyrgyz People
The Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
(also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Genetics 4 Political development 5 Religion 6 In Afghanistan 7 In China 8 Notable Kyrgyz people 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEtymology There are several theories on the origin of ethnonym Kyrgyz. It is often said to be derived from the Turkic word kyrk ("forty"), with -iz being an old plural suffix, so Kyrgyz literally means "a collection of forty tribes".[14] It also means "imperishable", "inextinguishable", "immortal", "unconquerable" or "unbeatable", as well as its association with the epic hero Manas, who – according to a founding myth – unified the 40 tribes against the Khitans
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Pamir-Alay
The Pamir-Alay
Pamir-Alay
(also Pamiro-Alai, Russian: Памиро-Алай) is a mountain system in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Uzbekistan, part of the Pamir Mountains. It stretches between the valleys of the rivers Syr Darya (Fergana Valley) to its north and Vakhsh to its south.[1] Its highest summit is Pik Skalisty (Russian: пик Скалистый, "rocky peak"), 5621 m, in the Turkestan Range.[2] Main subranges[edit] The Pamir-Alay
Pamir-Alay
is subdivided into the following mountain ranges:Alay Mountains Zarafshan Range Turkestan Range Köýtendag Range Gissar Range
Gissar Range
(including Fann Mountains)References[edit]^ M
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Siberia
Coordinates: 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000SiberiaRussian: Сибирь (Sibir)Geographical region       Siberian Federal District        Geographic Russian Siberia        North AsiaCountry  Russia,  KazakhstanRegion North AsiaBorders on West: Ural Mountains North: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean East: Pacific
Pacific
Ocean South: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, ChinaParts West Siberian Plain Central Siberian Plateau others...Highest point Klyuchevskaya Sopka - elevation 4,649 m (15,253 ft)Area 13,100,000 km2 (5,057,938 sq mi)Population 36,000,000 (2017)Density 2.7/km2 (7/sq mi) Siberia
Siberia
(/saɪˈbɪəriə/; Russian: Сиби́рь, tr
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Founding Myth
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the cosmogonic myth, which describes the creation of the world
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Khitans
Animism • Taoism
Taoism
 • Buddhism
Buddhism
 • Islam
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History Of Yuan
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China. Commissioned by the court of the Ming dynasty, in accordance to political tradition, the text was composed in 1370 by the official Bureau of History of the Ming dynasty, under direction of Song Lian
Song Lian
(1310–1381). The compilation formalized the official history of the preceding Yuan dynasty
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Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: степь, IPA: [stʲepʲ]) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld. The prairie of North America
North America
(especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-desert or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Huns
The Huns
Huns
were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Pamirs
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas
Himalayas
with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj
Hindu Raj
ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains. The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
is subject to debate.[1] They lie mostly in the Gorno-Badakhshan province of Tajikistan. To the north they join the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains along the Alay Valley
Alay Valley
of Kyrgyzstan. To the south they border the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains along Afghanistan's Wakhan
Wakhan
Corridor
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Tamga
A tamga or tamgha "stamp, seal" (Mongolian: тамга, Old Turkic: 𐱃𐰢𐰍‎ tamga; Turkish: damga) is an abstract seal or stamp used by Eurasian nomadic peoples and by cultures influenced by them. The tamga was normally the emblem of a particular tribe, clan or family
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Yenisey River
The Yenisei (Russian: Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Mongolian: Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön); Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug[2] also Romanized Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej,[3] is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean. It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob and the Lena). Rising in Mongolia, it follows a northerly course to the Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
in the Kara Sea, draining a large part of central Siberia, the longest stream following the Yenisei-Angara-Selenga-Ider river system. The maximum depth of the Yenisei is 24 metres (80 ft) and the average depth is 14 metres (45 ft)
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Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia
/mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. Mongolia
Mongolia
does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them. At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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Sima Qian
Sima Qian
Sima Qian
(/ˈsiːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/;[1] Chinese: 司馬遷; Wade–Giles: Ssu-ma Ch'ien /ˈsuːmɑː ˈtʃɪən/),[2] was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220)
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Records Of The Grand Historian
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian
Sima Qian
after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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