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Kyrgyz People
The KYRGYZ PEOPLE (also spelled KYRGHYZ and KIRGHIZ) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Genetics * 4 Political development * 5 Religion * 6 In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 7 In China
China
* 8 Notable Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References and further reading * 12 External links ETYMOLOGYThere are several theories on the origin of ethnonym Kyrgyz. It is often said to be derived from the Turkic word kyrk ("forty"), with -iz being an old plural suffix, so Kyrgyz literally means "a collection of forty tribes". It also means "imperishable", "inextinguishable", "immortal", "unconquerable" or "unbeatable", as well as its association with the epic hero Manas , who – according to a founding myth – unified the 40 tribes against the Khitans
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Pamirs
The PAMIR MOUNTAINS, or the PAMIRS, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas
Himalayas
with the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
, Karakoram
Karakoram
, Kunlun , Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains . The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
is subject to debate. They lie mostly in the Gorno-Badakhshan province of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
. To the north they join the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. To the south they border the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains along Afghanistan
Afghanistan
's Wakhan Corridor
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Mongolia
MONGOLIA /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ ( listen ) (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian ; Монгол Улс in Mongolian Cyrillic ) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia , and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China
China
to the south and Russia
Russia
to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Mongolia
Mongolia
is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometres (22.84 mi). At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia
Mongolia
is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people
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Sima Qian
SIMA QIAN (Chinese : 司馬遷; Wade–Giles : SSU-MA CH\'IEN), was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220). He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian , a Jizhuanti -style (history presented in a series of biographies) general history of China
China
, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
to his time, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
, a work that had much influence for centuries afterwards on history-writing not only in China, but in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as well
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Huns
The HUNS were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
between the 4th century AD and the 7th century AD. As per European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River
Volga River
, in an area that was part of Scythia
Scythia
at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans
Alans
. By 370 AD, the Huns
Huns
had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns
Huns
had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe
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Steppe
In physical geography , a STEPPE (Russian : степь; IPA: ) is an ecoregion , in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes , characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa
South Africa
they are referred to as veld . The prairie (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. It may be semi-desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude . The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Ethnic Group
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Ethnonym
An ETHNONYM (from the Greek : ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group . Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (where the name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms or ENDONYMS (self-designation; where the name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). As an example, the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group in Germany
Germany
is the Germans. This ethnonym is an exonym used by the English-speaking world, although the term itself is derived from Latin . Conversely, Germans themselves use the autonym of die Deutschen. Germans are indicated by exonyms in many European languages, such as French (Allemands), Italian (tedeschi), Swedish (tyskar) and Polish (Niemcy)
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History Of Yuan
The HISTORY OF YUAN (YUáN SHǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China
China
. Commissioned by the court of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, in accordance to political tradition, the text was composed in 1370 by the official Bureau of History of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, under direction of Song Lian (1310–1381). The compilation formalized the official history of the preceding Yuan dynasty. Under the guidance of Song Lian, the official dynastic history broke with the old Confucian
Confucian
historiographical tradition, establishing a new historical framework asserting that the influence of history was equal in influence to the great Confucian
Confucian
classics in determining the course of human affairs
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Records Of The Grand Historian
The RECORDS OF THE GRAND HISTORIAN (太史公書), now usually known as the SHǐJì (史記, "The Scribe's Records"), is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan , Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in the author's own time. The Records has been called a "foundational text in Chinese civilization"
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Tang Dynasty
The TANG DYNASTY or the TANG EMPIRE (Chinese : 唐朝 ) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period . It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
, and the Tang capital at Chang\'an (present-day Xi\'an ) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty (690–705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant
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Siberia
Coordinates : 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000 Siberia Russian : Сибирь (Sibir) Geographical region Siberian Federal District
Siberian Federal District
Geographic Russian Siberia North Asia
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe
Europe
, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century
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Early Middle Ages
The EARLY MIDDLE AGES (or EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD), lasting from the 5th to the 10th century CE , marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history . The Early Middle Ages followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages largely overlap with Late Antiquity . The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity , including population decline , especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Yenisey River
The YENISEI (Russian : Енисе́й, Jenisej; Mongolian : Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön); Buryat : Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan : Улуг-Хем, Ulug-Khem; Khakas : Ким суг, Kim sug also Romanized YENISEY, ENISEI, JENISEJ, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
. It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob and the Lena ). Rising in Mongolia
Mongolia
, it follows a northerly course to the Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
in the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
, draining a large part of central Siberia, the longest stream following the Yenisei- Angara
Angara
- Selenga
Selenga
-Ider river system. The maximum depth of the Yenisei is 24 metres (80 ft) and the average depth is 14 metres (45 ft)
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Tamga
A TAMGA or TAMGHA "stamp, seal" (Mongolian : тамга, Old Turkic : 𐱃𐰢𐰍 tamga; Turkish : damga) is an abstract seal or stamp used by Eurasian nomadic peoples and by cultures influenced by them. The tamga was normally the emblem of a particular tribe, clan or family. They were common among the Eurasian nomads throughout Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages (including Alans
Alans
, Mongols
Mongols
, Sarmatians , Scythians
Scythians
and Turkic peoples ). Similar "tamga-like" symbols were sometimes adopted by sedentary peoples adjacent to the Pontic-Caspian steppe both in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Central Asia
. Archaeologists prize tamgas as a first-rate source for the study of present and extinct cultures
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