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Kevlar
KEVLAR is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber , related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora . Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont
DuPont
in 1965, this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. Currently, Kevlar
Kevlar
has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body armor , because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio ; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel. It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact. When used as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring lines and other underwater applications
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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Chemical Synthesis
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product , or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories. A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask . Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated
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Phenylene
The PHENYLENE group (C6H4) is based on a di-substituted benzene ring (arylene ). For example, poly(p-phenylene) is a polymer built up from para-phenylene repeating units. REFERENCES * ^ p. C-9, Section 11.6, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 62nd Edition, 1981-1982, CRC Press This article about an aromatic compound is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Spinneret (polymers)
A SPINNERET is a device used to extrude a polymer solution or polymer melt to form fibers . Streams of viscous polymer exit via the spinneret into air or liquid leading to a phase inversion which allows the polymer to solidify. The individual polymer chains tend to align in the fiber because of viscous flow . This airstream liquid-to-fiber formation process is similar to the production process for cotton candy . The fiber production process is generally referred to as "spinning". Depending on the type of spinneret used, either solid or hollow fibers can be formed. Spinnerets are also used for electrospinning and electrospraying applications. They are sometimes called coaxial needles, or coaxial emitters. SEE ALSO * Hollow fiber membrane
Hollow fiber membrane
* Spinning (polymers) * Textiles
Textiles
* Thermal cleaning REFERENCES * ^ A B Li, Norman N. (2008)
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Viscosity
The VISCOSITY of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress . For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has a much higher viscosity than water . Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid in a fluid that are moving at different velocities . When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving. For a given velocity pattern, the stress required is proportional to the fluid's viscosity. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal or inviscid fluid
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Ultraviolet Light
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Liquid Crystal
LIQUID CRYSTALS (LCS) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals . For instance, a liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way. There are many different types of liquid-crystal phases, which can be distinguished by their different optical properties (such as birefringence ). When viewed under a microscope using a polarized light source, different liquid crystal phases will appear to have distinct textures . The contrasting areas in the textures correspond to domains where the liquid-crystal molecules are oriented in different directions. Within a domain, however, the molecules are well ordered. LC materials may not always be in a liquid-crystal phase (just as water may turn into ice or steam). Liquid
Liquid
crystals can be divided into thermotropic , lyotropic and metallotropic phases
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Opalescent
OPALESCENCE is a type of dichroism seen in highly dispersed systems with little opacity . The material appears yellowish-red in transmitted light and blue in the scattered light perpendicular to the transmitted light. The phenomenon is named after the appearance of opals and is an example of the Tyndall effect
Tyndall effect
. There are different degrees of opalescent behaviour. One can still see through a slightly opalescent phase. The larger the particles are, the stronger the scattering arising from them and the cloudier the particular phase will look. At a certain concentration the scattering is so strong that all light passing through is scattered, so that it is no longer transparent. Examples are the blue sky in the daytime and the yellowish-red sky at sunset. Another example can be made by adding a few droplets of milk to a glass of water. The liquid appears bluish
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Amine
In organic chemistry , AMINES (US : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin/ , UK : /əˈmiːn, ˈæmin, ˈeɪmin/ ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair . Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia , wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids , biogenic amines , trimethylamine , and aniline ; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic
Inorganic
derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as chloramine (NClH2); see Category: Inorganic
Inorganic
amines
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Monomer
A MONOMER (/ˈmɒnəmər/ MON-ə-mər ) (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that, as a unit, binds chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a supramolecular polymer . Large numbers of monomer units combine to form polymers in a process called polymerization . Molecules of a small number of monomer units (up to a few dozen) are called oligomers . The term "monomeric protein " may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex
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Patent War
A PATENT WAR is a "battle" between corporations or individuals to secure patents for litigation, whether offensively or defensively. There are ongoing patent wars between the world's largest technology and software corporations. Contemporary patent wars are a global phenomenon, fought by multinational corporations based in the United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Patent
Patent
wars have occurred in a wide range of technologies, both in the past and in the present. HISTORY Patent
Patent
wars are not a new phenomenon. In the Wright brothers
Wright brothers
patent war , the Wright brothers
Wright brothers
, attributed with the invention of the airplane , sought to prevent competitors from manufacturing airplanes through litigation, stifling the development of the American airline industry
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Sulfuric Acid
SULFURIC ACID (alternative spelling SULPHURIC ACID) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2 SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol. It is a pungent-ethereal, colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid that is soluble in water at all concentrations . Sometimes, it is dyed dark brown during production to alert people to its hazards. The historical name of this acid is OIL OF VITRIOL. Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
is a diprotic acid and shows different properties depending upon its concentration. Its corrosiveness on other materials, like metals , living tissues or even stones , can be mainly ascribed to its strong acidic nature and, if concentrated, strong dehydrating and oxidizing properties. It is also hygroscopic , readily absorbing water vapour from the air
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Spinning (textiles)
SPINNING is the twisting together of drawn out strands of fibers to form yarn , and is a major part of the textile industry . The yarn is then used to create textiles , which are then used to make clothing and many other products. There are several industrial processes available to spin yarn, as well as hand spinning techniques where the fiber is drawn out, twisted, and wound onto a bobbin . CONTENTS * 1 Types of fibre * 2 Methods of spinning * 3 History and economics * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links TYPES OF FIBREArtificial fibres are made by extruding a polymer through a spinneret into a medium where it hardens. Wet spinning (rayon ) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning (acetate and triacetate), the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber. In melt spinning (nylons and polyesters ) the extruded polymer is cooled in gas or air and sets. All these fibres will be of great length, often kilometers long
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Polymerization
In polymer chemistry , POLYMERIZATION is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Step-growth * 3 Chain-growth * 3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering * 3.2 Photopolymerization * 4 See also * 5 References INTRODUCTION Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . A A A A . . . {displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA...} Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . A B A B . . . {displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB...} In chemical compounds , polymerization occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects
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Hexamethylphosphoramide
HEXAMETHYLPHOSPHORAMIDE, often abbreviated HMPA, is a phosphoramide (i.e. an amide of phosphoric acid ) with the formula 3PO. This colorless liquid is a useful polar aprotic solvent and additive in organic synthesis . CONTENTS * 1 Structure and reactivity * 2 Applications * 3 Alternative reagents * 4 Toxicity * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITYHMPA is the oxide of the highly basic tertiary phosphine hexamethylphosphorous triamide (HMPT), P(NMe2)3. Like other phosphine oxides (e.g., triphenylphosphine oxide ), the molecule has a tetrahedral core and a P-O bond that is highly polarized, with significant negative charge residing on the oxygen atom. Compounds containing a nitrogen -phosphorus bond typically are degraded by hydrochloric acid to form a protonated amine and phosphate. APPLICATIONSHMPA is a specialty solvent for polymers , gases , and organometallic compounds
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