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Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar
is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex
Nomex
and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek
Stephanie Kwolek
at DuPont
DuPont
in 1965,[1][2][3] this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. Kevlar
Kevlar
has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel.[2] It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Polymerization
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.[2][3][4] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.Contents1 Introduction 2 Step-growth 3 Chain-growth3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering 3.2 Photopolymerization4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit]Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . → A A A A . . . displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA... Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . → A B A B . . . displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB..
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Spinneret (polymers)
A spinneret is a device used to extrude a polymer solution or polymer melt to form fibers.[1] Streams of viscous polymer exit via the spinneret into air or liquid leading to a phase inversion which allows the polymer to solidify. The individual polymer chains tend to align in the fiber because of viscous flow.[2] This airstream liquid-to-fiber formation process is similar to the production process for cotton candy. The fiber production process is generally referred to as "spinning". Depending on the type of spinneret used, either solid or hollow fibers can be formed.[1] Spinnerets are also used for electrospinning and electrospraying applications. They are sometimes called coaxial needles, or coaxial emitters. See also[edit]Hollow fiber membrane Spinning (polymers) Textiles Thermal cleaningReferences[edit]^ a b Li, Norman N. (2008). Advanced membrane technology and applications. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley
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ChemSpider
ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Database 2 Crowdsourcing 3 Searching 4 Chemistry document mark-up 5 History 6 Services6.1 SyntheticPages 6.2 Open PHACTS7 See also 8 ReferencesDatabase[edit] The database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including:EPA DSSTox[14][15] U.S
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Chemical Synthesis
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.[1] This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories. A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask
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Phenylene
The phenylene group (C6H4) is based on a di-substituted benzene ring (arylene). For example, poly(p-phenylene) is a polymer built up from para-phenylene repeating units.[1] References[edit]^ p. C-9, Section 11.6, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 62nd Edition, 1981-1982, CRC PressThis article about an aromatic compound is a stub
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Amine
In organic chemistry, amines (/əˈmiːn, ˈæmiːn/,[1][2] also UK: /ˈeɪmiːn/)[3] are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group[4] (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids, biogenic amines, trimethylamine, and aniline; see Category:Amines for a list of amines
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Condensation Polymer
Condensation polymers are any kind of polymers formed through a condensation reaction—where molecules join together—losing small molecules as byproducts such as water or methanol. The main alternative form of polymerization gives addition polymers, which derive from the conversion of alkenes to long-chain alkanes. Condensation polymerization is a form of step-growth polymerization. Linear polymers are produced from bifunctional monomers, i.e. compounds with two reactive end groups. Common condensation polymers include polyamides, polyacetals, and proteins.[1][2]Contents1 Polyamides 2 Polyesters 3 Safety and environmental considerations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPolyamides[edit] One important class of condensation polymers are polyamides.[3] They arise from the reaction of carboxylic acid and an amine. Examples include nylons and proteins. When prepared from amino-carboxylic acids, e.g
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Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
is a corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. A colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, when it reacts with an organic base it forms a hydrochloride salt. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayyan
around the year 800 AD.[5][6] Hydrochloric acid was historically called acidum salis, muriatic acid, and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (by Basilius Valentinus
Basilius Valentinus
in the 15th century) and later from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid (by Johann Rudolph Glauber
Johann Rudolph Glauber
in the 17th century). Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius
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Hexamethylphosphoramide
Hexamethylphosphoramide, often abbreviated HMPA, is a phosphoramide (i.e. an amide of phosphoric acid) with the formula [(CH3)2N]3PO. This colorless liquid is a useful polar aprotic solvent and additive in organic synthesis.Contents1 Structure and reactivity 2 Applications 3 Alternative reagents 4 Toxicity 5 References 6 External linksStructure and reactivity[edit] HMPA is the oxide of the highly basic tertiary phosphine hexamethylphosphorous triamide (HMPT[3]), P(NMe2)3. Like other phosphine oxides (e.g., triphenylphosphine oxide), the molecule has a tetrahedral core and a P-O bond that is highly polarized, with significant negative charge residing on the oxygen atom. Compounds containing a nitrogen-phosphorus bond typically are degraded by hydrochloric acid to form a protonated amine and phosphate. Applications[edit] HMPA is a specialty solvent for polymers, gases, and organometallic compounds
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Patent War
A patent war is a "battle" between corporations or individuals to secure patents for litigation, whether offensively or defensively. There are ongoing patent wars between the world's largest technology and software corporations. Contemporary patent wars are a global phenomenon, fought by multinational corporations based in the United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea and Taiwan.[1][2][3] Patent wars have occurred in a wide range of technologies, both in the past and in the present. History[edit] Patent wars are not a new phenomenon
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Opalescent
Opalescence
Opalescence
is a type of dichroism seen in highly dispersed systems with little opacity. The material appears yellowish-red in transmitted light and blue in the scattered light perpendicular to the transmitted light. The phenomenon is named after the appearance of opals and is an example of the Tyndall effect. There are different degrees of opalescent behaviour. One can still see through a slightly opalescent phase. The larger the particles are, the stronger the scattering arising from them and the cloudier the particular phase will look. At a certain concentration the scattering is so strong that all light passing through is scattered, so that it is no longer transparent. Examples are the blue sky in the daytime and the yellowish-red sky at sunset. Another example can be made by adding a few droplets of milk to a glass of water. The liquid appears bluish
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Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
(alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4
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Spinning (textiles)
Spinning is the twisting together of drawn-out strands of fibers to form yarn, and is a major part of the textile industry. The yarn is then used to create textiles, which are then used to make clothing and many other products. There are several industrial processes available to spin yarn, as well as hand-spinning techniques where the fiber is drawn out, twisted, and wound onto a bobbin.Contents1 Types of fibre 2 Methods 3 History and economics 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksTypes of fibre[edit] Artificial fibres are made by extruding a polymer through a spinneret into a medium where it hardens. Wet spinning (rayon) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning (acetate and triacetate), the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber
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Ultraviolet Light
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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