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Jurisprudence
JURISPRUDENCE is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists. Scholars of jurisprudence, also known as jurists or legal theorists, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of legal reasoning , legal systems , legal institutions , and the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of the natural law , civil law , and the law of nations . General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered. Contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, addresses problems internal to law and legal systems, and problems of law as a particular social institution as law relates to the larger political and social situation in which it exists
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Ius Naturale
IUS NATURALE is Latin
Latin
for natural right, the laws common to all beings. Roman jurists wondered why the ius gentium (the laws which applied to foreigners and citizens alike) was in general accepted by all people living in the Empire. Their conclusion was that these laws made sense to a reasonable person and thus were followed. All laws which would make sense to a normal person were called ius naturale. Slavery
Slavery
, for example, was part of the empire-wide ius gentium because slavery was known and accepted as a normal social institution in all parts of the known world. Nevertheless, as forcing people to work for others was a human-produced condition, it was not considered natural and, hence, was part of the ius gentium but not the ius naturale. The ius naturale of the Roman jurists is not the same as implied by the modern sense of natural law as something derived from pure reason
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Nicomachean Ethics
The NICOMACHEAN ETHICS (/ˌnɪkoʊˈmækiən/ ; Greek : Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle
Aristotle
's best-known work on ethics . The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics , consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum . The title is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus , to whom the work was dedicated or who may have edited it (although his young age makes this less likely). Alternatively, the work may have been dedicated to his father, who was also called Nicomachus. The theme of the work is a Socratic question previously explored in the works of Plato
Plato
, Aristotle's friend and teacher, of how men should best live
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Natural Justice
In English law
English law
, NATURAL JUSTICE
JUSTICE
is technical terminology for the rule against bias (nemo iudex in causa sua ) and the right to a fair hearing (audi alteram partem ). While the term natural justice is often retained as a general concept, it has largely been replaced and extended by the general "duty to act fairly". The basis for the rule against bias is the need to maintain public confidence in the legal system. Bias can take the form of actual bias, imputed bias or apparent bias. Actual bias is very difficult to prove in practice while imputed bias, once shown, will result in a decision being void without the need for any investigation into the likelihood or suspicion of bias. Cases from different jurisdictions currently apply two tests for apparent bias: the "reasonable suspicion of bias" test and the "real likelihood of bias" test
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Socrates
SOCRATES (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/ ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian ) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy . He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers , especially the writings of his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes . Plato\'s dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates
Socrates
to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates
Socrates
himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato"
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School Of Salamanca
The SCHOOL OF SALAMANCA (Spanish : Escuela de Salamanca) is the Renaissance
Renaissance
of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians , rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria . From the beginning of the 16th century the traditional Catholic conception of man and of his relation to God and to the world had been assaulted by the rise of humanism , by the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and by the new geographical discoveries and their consequences. These new problems were addressed by the School of Salamanca. The name refers to the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
, where de Vitoria and others of the school were based
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Plato Republic
The REPUBLIC (Greek : Πολιτεία, Politeia ; Latin
Latin
: Res Publica ) is a Socratic dialogue , written by Plato
Plato
around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state and the just man. It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory , both intellectually and historically. In the book's dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the meaning of justice and whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man with various Athenians and foreigners. They consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison. This culminates in the discussion of Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), a hypothetical city-state ruled by a philosopher king
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Francesco Hayez
FRANCESCO HAYEZ (Italian: ; 10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism
Romanticism
in mid-19th-century Milan
Milan
, renowned for his grand historical paintings , political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits. BIOGRAPHY Francesco Hayez
Francesco Hayez
- Self-portrait with Tiger and Lion Hayez came from a relatively poor family from Venice
Venice
. His father, Giovanni, was of French origin while his mother, Chiara Torcella, was from Murano . The child Francesco, youngest of five sons, was brought up by his mother's sister, who had married Giovanni Binasco, a well-off shipowner and collector of art. From childhood he showed a predisposition for drawing, so his uncle apprenticed him to an art restorer
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Eudemian Ethics
The EUDEMIAN ETHICS (Greek : Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια; Latin : Ethica Eudemia ), sometimes abbreviated EE in scholarly works, is a work of philosophy by Aristotle
Aristotle
. Its primary focus is on Ethics
Ethics
, making it one of the primary sources available for study of Aristotelian Ethics
Ethics
. It is named for Eudemus of Rhodes , a pupil of Aristotle
Aristotle
who may also have had a hand in editing the final work. It is commonly believed to have been written before the Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
, though this is not without controversy. The Eudemian Ethics
Ethics
is less well-known than Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, and when scholars refer simply to the Ethics
Ethics
of Aristotle, the second of the two is generally intended
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Golden Mean (philosophy)
In ancient Greek philosophy , especially that of Aristotle
Aristotle
, the GOLDEN MEAN or GOLDEN MIDDLE WAY or GOLDILOCKS THEORY is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example, in the Aristotelian view, courage is a virtue, but if taken to excess would manifest as recklessness , and, in deficiency, cowardice . To the Greek mentality, it was an attribute of beauty. Both ancients and moderns believed that there is a close association in mathematics between beauty and truth . The Greeks believed there to be three "ingredients" to beauty: symmetry , proportion , and harmony . Beauty was an object of love and something that was to be imitated and reproduced in their lives, architecture, education (paideia ), and politics. They judged life by this mentality
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Summa Theologica
The SUMMA THEOLOGIæ (written 1265–1274 and also known as the SUMMA THEOLOGICA or simply the SUMMA) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274). Although unfinished, the Summa is "one of the classics of the history of philosophy and one of the most influential works of Western literature." It was intended as an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. It was a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. It presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian
Christian
theology in the West. The Summa's topics follow a cycle: the existence of God
God
; Creation, Man; Man\'s purpose ; Christ
Christ
; the Sacraments ; and back to God. The Summa is Aquinas' "most perfect work, the fruit of his mature years, in which the thought of his whole life is condensed"
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Doctor Of The Church
DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH ( Latin
Latin
doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine. Some other churches have similar categories with various names
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Institutions Named After Thomas Aquinas
INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING NAMED AFTER THOMAS AQUINAS include the following: AFRICA NAME OF INSTITUTION LOCATION St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
Secondary School Accra
Accra
, Ghana
Ghana
St
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Natural Theology
NATURAL THEOLOGY, once also termed PHYSICO-THEOLOGY, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God
God
based on reason and ordinary experience of nature . This distinguishes it from revealed theology , which is based on scripture and/or religious experiences , and also from transcendental theology , which is based on a priori reasoning. Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
(116 BC – 27 BC) established a distinction between political theology (the social functions of religion), natural theology and mythical theology . His terminology became part of the Stoic tradition and then Christianity
Christianity
through St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas . Natural theology is thus a type of philosophy, the object of which is explanation of the nature of the gods , or of one supreme God
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