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Jiaqing Emperor
The Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
(13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor
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Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Transliterations Of Manchu
There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by the German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad
BabelPad
transliteration (used for ease of input, not for formal transcription), the transliteration of the A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD), and Abkai Transliteration (former: Daicing Transliteration)
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Chinese Character
Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese. Occasionally, they are also used for writing Korean, Vietnamese and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese, they are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字, lit "Han characters").[2][3][4] They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, including Korean, where they are known as Hanja
Hanja
(漢字), Japanese, where they are known as Kanji
Kanji
(漢字), Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters
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Favourite
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, among other times and places, the term is used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, and political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe, especially in Spain, England, France and Sweden.[1] The term is also sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress", or "friend", "companion" or "lover" of either sex
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Naming Taboo
A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China
China
and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.Contents1 Kinds of naming taboo 2 Methods to avoid offence 3 Naming taboo
Naming taboo
in history 4 In other countries 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingKinds of naming taboo[edit]The naming taboo of the state (国讳; 國諱) discouraged the use of the emperor's given name and those of his ancestors. For example, during the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shi Huang's given name Zheng (政) was avoided, and the first month of the year "Zheng Yue" (政月: the administrative month) was rewritten into "Zheng Yue" (正月: the upright month) and furthermore renamed as "Duan Yue" (端月: the proper/upright month). The strength of this taboo was reinforced by law; transgressors could expect serious punishment for writing an emperor's name without modifications
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Manchu Alphabet
The Manchu
Manchu
alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu
Manchu
language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu
Manchu
or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language
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Eight Banners
Later Jin invasion of Joseon Qing conquest of MingBattle of Ningyuan Battle of Shanhai PassQing invasion of Joseon Revolt of the Three Feudatories Ten Great Campaigns First Opium War Second Opium War Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Xinhai RevolutionThis article contains Manchu
Manchu
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Manchu alphabets.The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
(in Manchu: ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ jakūn gūsa, Chinese: 八旗; pinyin: bāqí) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
into which all Manchu
Manchu
households were placed. In war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but the banner system was also the basic organizational framework of all of Manchu
Manchu
society
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Temple Name
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean ( Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty. They should not be confused with era names. Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to an emperor or king, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (孝)
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