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Ibn Wahshiyya
IBN WAHSHIYYAH THE NABATAEAN (Arabic : ابن وحشية النبطي‎‎), also known as ʾAbū Bakr ʾAḥmad bin ʿAlī (Arabic : أبو بكر أحمد بن علي‎‎) (fl. 9th/10th centuries) was an Iraqi alchemist , agriculturalist , farm toxicologist , Egyptologist
Egyptologist
, and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq
Iraq
. He was one of the first historians to be able to at least partly decipher what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language
Coptic language

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University College London
£ 1.335 billion (university); £1.357 billion (consolidated) (2015-16) CHANCELLOR The Princess Royal (as Chancellor of the University of London
University of London
) PROVOST Michael Arthur CHAIR OF THE COUNCIL Dame DeAnne Julius ACADEMIC STAFF 7,070 (2014/15) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF 4,910 (2014/15) STUDENTS 38,313 (2015/16) UNDERGRADUATES 17,846 (2015/16) POSTGRADUATES 20,467 (2015/16) LOC
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Silvestre De Sacy
ANTOINE ISAAC, BARON SILVESTRE DE SACY (French: ; 21 September 1758 – 21 February 1838), was a French nobleman , linguist and orientalist . His son, Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy , became a journalist. CONTENTS* 1 Life and works * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Philological studies * 1.3 Public offices and memberships * 2 Egyptian hieroglyphics research * 3 Other scholarly works * 4 Critical studies * 5 Famous students * 6 Selected works * 7 References * 8 External links LIFE AND WORKSEARLY LIFESilvestre de Sacy was born in Paris
Paris
to a notary named Jacques Abraham Silvestre, a Jansenist
Jansenist
. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family. The surname extension of "de Sacy" was added by the younger son after a fashion then common with the Parisian bourgeoisie . Sacy's father died when he was seven years old, and he was educated on his own by his mother
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Rosetta Stone
The ROSETTA STONE is a granodiorite stele , found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt
Memphis, Egypt
in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
on behalf of King Ptolemy V . The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta
Rosetta
Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs . The stone, carved in black granodiorite during the Hellenistic period , is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple , possibly at nearby Sais
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Islamic Science
SCIENCE IN THE MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC WORLD was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
under the Umayyads of Córdoba , the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, Buyid Persia, Tamerlane
Tamerlane
's Transoxiana, the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1429. Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially astronomy , mathematics , and medicine . Other subjects of scientific inquiry included alchemy and chemistry , botany , geography and cartography , ophthalmology , pharmacology , physics , and zoology . Medieval Islamic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding
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List Of Shi'a Muslims
The following is a list of notable Shia , Muslims . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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Jean-François Champollion
JEAN-FRANçOIS CHAMPOLLION (CHAMPOLLION LE JEUNE; 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar , philologist and orientalist , known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology
Egyptology
. A child prodigy in philology, he gave his first public paper on the decipherment of Demotic in 1806, and already as a young man held many posts of honor in scientific circles, and spoke Coptic and Arabic
Arabic
fluently. During the early 19th-century French culture experienced a period of ' Egyptomania ', brought on by Napoleon\'s discoveries in Egypt during his campaign there (1797–1801) which also brought to light the trilingual Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone

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Joseph Von Hammer-Purgstall
Baron JOSEPH FREIHERR VON HAMMER-PURGSTALL (9 June 1774 in Graz
Graz
– 23 November 1856 in Vienna
Vienna
) was an Austrian orientalist and historian. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Family * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links LIFEBorn JOSEPH HAMMER in Graz, Styria (now Austria
Austria
), he received his early education mainly in Vienna
Vienna
. Entering the diplomatic service in 1796, he was appointed in 1799 to a position in the Austrian embassy in Istanbul
Istanbul
, and in this capacity he took part in the expedition under Admiral William Sidney Smith and General John Hely-Hutchinson against France . In 1807 he returned home from the East, after which he was made a privy councillor . In 1824 he was knighted (Chevalier)
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Isaac La Peyrère
ISAAC LA PEYRèRE, also known as ISAAC DE LA PEYRèRE or PERERIUS, (1596–1676) was a Marrano French Millenarian theologian and formulator of the Pre-Adamite hypothesis. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 Notes * 5 External links LIFELa Peyrère was a lawyer by training and a Calvinist by upbringing, though he later converted to Catholicism . La Peyrère served as secretary to the Prince of Condé on whose orders he lived for one month in 1654 in a house in the Southern Netherlands adjoining that of the recently abdicated Queen Christina of Sweden . Christina is said to have financed the anonymous publication of Prae-Adamitae. During this time both Christina and La Peyrère met with Menasseh Ben Israel , who was later invited by Oliver Cromwell 's government to England to negotiate the readmission of Jews to that country. Menasseh became a convert to La Peyrère's belief that the coming of the Jewish Messiah was imminent
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Copt
The COPTS (Coptic : ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ Niremenkīmi Enkhristianos, Egyptian Arabic : أقباط‎‎ Aqbat) are an ethno-religious group that primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt
Egypt
, where they are the largest Christian
Christian
denomination . Copts
Copts
are also the largest Christian adherent group in Sudan
Sudan
and Libya
Libya
. Historically, they spoke the Coptic language
Coptic language
, a direct descendant of the Demotic Egyptian that was spoken during the Roman era. The Coptic language
Coptic language
is a focus of Coptology and remains in liturgical use, although most Copts
Copts
today speak Arabic
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Athanasius Kircher
ATHANASIUS KIRCHER, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled KIRCHNER; Latin
Latin
: Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion , geology , and medicine . Kircher has been compared to fellow Jesuit Roger Boscovich and to Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
for his enormous range of interests, and has been honored with the title "Master of a Hundred Arts". He taught for more than forty years at the Roman College
Roman College
, where he set up a wunderkammer . A resurgence of interest in Kircher has occurred within the scholarly community in recent decades. Kircher claimed to have deciphered the hieroglyphic writing of the ancient Egyptian language
Egyptian language
, but most of his assumptions and translations in this field were later found to be nonsensical
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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Ja'far Al-Sadiq
disputed Twelvers — Musa al-Kadhim Isma‘ilis — Isma‘il ibn Ja‘far Aftahis — Abdullah al-Aftah Shumattiyyah - Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ja\'far al-Sadiq Ali
Ali
al-Uraidhi ibn Ja\'far al-Sadiq Hanafi
Hanafi
- Abu Hanifa SPOUSE(S)Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah CHILDREN List * Musa al-Kadhim * Isma\'il ibn Jafar * Abdullah al-Aftah * Ishaq * ʿ Ali
Ali
al-Uraidhi * Al-Abbas * Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Dibaj * Fātimah * Umm Farwah * Asmaa PARENT(S) Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
Farwah bint al-Qasim JAʿFAR IBN MUḥAMMAD AL-ṢāDIQ (Arabic : جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎‎; 700 or 702–765 C.E
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Harbi Al-Himyari
HARBI AL-HIMYARI (Arabic : حربي الحميري‎‎ ḤARBī AL-ḤIMYARī), was an Arab
Arab
scholar from Yemen
Yemen
, who lived between the 7th and 8th century AD. He is the mentor for teaching Koran
Koran
and mathematics to Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
. According to Holmyard nothing else is known about him. NOTES * ^ Eric John Holmyard , Makers of Chemistry. London: Oxford University Press, 1931REFERENCES * Eric John Holmyard , Makers of Chemistry
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