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Horsfieldia
Horsfieldia
Horsfieldia
is the name of a genus of evergreen trees.[3] The genus consists of about 100 species and is distributed across South Asia, from India to the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.[3] Some species are used for timber.[4] Some species contain alkaloids, including horsfiline, which has analgesic effects.[5] Selected species[edit]H. ampla Markgr. H. ampliformis W.J.de Wilde H. amplomontana W.J.de Wilde H. amygdalina (Wall.) Warb. H. androphora W.J.de Wilde H. ardisiifolia (A.DC.) Warb. H. atjehensis W.J.de Wilde H. australiana S.T.Blake H. borneensis W.J.de Wilde H. brachiata Warb. H. carnosa Warb. H. clavata W.J.de Wilde H. coriacea W.J.de Wilde H. crassifolia (Hook.f
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Alkaloid
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral[2] and even weakly acidic properties.[3] Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids.[4] In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.[5] Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial (e.g. quinine), antiasthma (e.g. ephedrine), anticancer (e.g. homoharringtonine),[6] cholinomimetic (e.g. galantamine),[7] vasodilatory (e.g. vincamine), antiarrhythmic (e.g. quinidine), analgesic (e.g. morphine),[8] antibacterial (e.g
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Stephan Endlicher
Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher also known as Endlicher István László (24 June 1804, Pressburg (Bratislava) – 28 March 1849, Vienna) was an Austrian botanist, numismatist and Sinologist. He was a director of the Botanical Garden of Vienna.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Botany2.1.1 Taxonomy3 Important works 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Endlicher studied theology and received minor orders. In 1828 he was appointed to the Austrian National Library to reorganize its manuscript collection. Concurrently he studied natural history, in particular botany, and East-Asian languages. In 1836 Endlicher was appointed keeper of the court cabinet of natural history,[1] and in 1840 he became professor at the University of Vienna
Vienna
and director of its Botanical Garden. He wrote a comprehensive description of the plant kingdom according to a natural system, at the time its most comprehensive description
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Flowering Plant
sweet bayScientific classificationKingdom: PlantaeSubkingdom: Embryophyta(unranked): Spermatophyta(unranked): AngiospermsGroups (APG IV)[1]Basal angiospermsAmborellales Nymphaeales AustrobaileyalesCore angiospermsmagnoliids Chloranthales monocots Ceratophyllales eudicotsSynonyms Anthophyta Cronquist[2] Angiospermae Lindl. Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht.
Takht.
& W.Zimm.[3] Magnolicae Takht.[4]The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae[5][6] or Magnoliophyta,[7] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.[8] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds
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Magnoliids
Canellales Laurales Magnoliales Piperales Magnoliids
Magnoliids
(or Magnoliidae or Magnolianae) are a group of flowering plants. Until recently, the group included about 9,000[1] species, including magnolias, nutmeg, bay laurel, cinnamon, avocado, black pepper, tulip tree and many others. That group is characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, and usually branching-veined leaves.Contents1 Classification1.1 APG system 1.2 Cronquist system 1.3 Dahlgren and Thorne systems 1.4 Comparison table2 Economic uses 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification[edit] "Magnoliidae" is the botanical name of a subclass, and "magnoliids" is an informal name that does not conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. The circumscription of a subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used
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Magnoliales
Annonaceae Degeneriaceae Eupomatiaceae Himantandraceae Magnoliaceae Myristicaceae Myristica fragrans
Myristica fragrans
tree from Myristicaceae
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Carl Ludwig Willdenow
Carl Ludwig Willdenow
Carl Ludwig Willdenow
(22 August 1765 – 10 July 1812) was a German botanist, pharmacist, and plant taxonomist. He is considered one of the founders of phytogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants. Willdenow was also a mentor of Alexander von Humboldt, one of the earliest and best known phytogeographers. He also influenced Christian Konrad Sprengel, who pioneered the study of plant pollination and floral biology.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Willdenow was born in Berlin
Berlin
and studied medicine and botany at the University of Halle. After studying pharmaceutics at Wieglieb College, Langensalza and in medicine at Halle, he returned to Berlin
Berlin
to work at his father's pharmacy located in the Unter den Linden. His early interest in botany was kindled by his uncle J. G
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Analgesic
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic
Analgesic
drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Otto Kuntze
Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze
Otto Kuntze
(23 June 1843 – 27 January 1907) was a German botanist.Contents1 Biography 2 Biographical articles 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Otto Kuntze
Otto Kuntze
was born in Leipzig. An apothecary in his early career, he published an essay entitled Pocket Fauna of Leipzig. Between 1863 and 1866 he worked as tradesman in Berlin
Berlin
and traveled through central Europe and Italy. From 1868 to 1873 he had his own factory for essential oils and attained a comfortable standard of living. Between 1874 and 1876, he traveled around the world: the Caribbean, United States, Japan, China, South East Asia, Arabian peninsula and Egypt. The journal of these travels was published as "Around the World" (1881)
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Carl Ludwig Blume
Charles Ludwig de Blume or Karl Ludwig von Blume (9 June 1796, Braunschweig
Braunschweig
– 3 February 1862, Leiden) was a German-Dutch botanist. He was born at Braunschweig
Braunschweig
in Germany, but studied at Leiden University and spent his professional life working in the Dutch East Indies and in the Netherlands, where he was Director of the Rijksherbarium (state herbarium) at Leiden. His name is sometimes given in the Dutch language
Dutch language
form Karel Lodewijk Blume, but the original German spelling is the one most widely used in botanical texts: even then there is confusion, as he is sometimes referred to as K.L. Blume (from Karl). He carried out extensive studies of the flora of southern Asia, particularly in Java, then a colony of the Netherlands. From 1823 to 1826 Blume was Deputy Director of Agriculture at the botanic garden in Bogor
Bogor
(Buitenzorg) in Java
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Harmsiopanax
Harmsiopanax is a genus of woody, monocarpic flowering plants of a palmlike habit belonging to the family Araliaceae
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Horsfiline
Horsfiline is an oxindole alkaloid found in the plant Horsfieldia superba,[1] which is used in traditional herbal medicine. It has analgesic effects and has been the subject of significant research both to produce it synthetically by convenient routes,[2][3][4][5] and to develop analogues and derivatives which may have improved analgesic effects.[6][7] The chemical structure can be identified to be of the spiroindolone class. References[edit]^ Jossang, A; Jossang, P; Hadi, HA; Sevenet, T; Horsfiline, Bodo B. (1991). "An oxindole alkaloid from Horsfieldia superba". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 56 (23): 6527–6530. doi:10.1021/jo00023a016.  ^ Lakshmaiah, G; Kawabata, T; Shang, M; Fuji, K (1999). "Total Synthesis of (−)-Horsfiline via Asymmetric Nitroolefination". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 64 (5): 1699–1704. doi:10.1021/jo981577q. PMID 11674239.  ^ Cravotto, G; Giovenzana, GB; Pilati, T; Sisti, M; Palmisano, G (2001)
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