HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Hematological
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
[...More...]

"Hematological" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Blood (other)
Blood
Blood
is a biological fluid found in animals that delivers nutrients and oxygen throughout the body and carries away waste products
[...More...]

"Blood (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Blood Vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.[1] There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled.Contents1 Structure1.1 Types2 Function2.1 Vessel size 2.2 Blood
Blood
flow3 Disease 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins:The inner layer, Tunica intima, is the thinnest layer
[...More...]

"Blood Vessel" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Hemocyanin
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals. These metalloproteins contain two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). They are second only to hemoglobin in frequency of use as an oxygen transport molecule. Unlike the hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, hemocyanins are not bound to blood cells but are instead suspended directly in the hemolymph
[...More...]

"Hemocyanin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Hemolymph
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues. It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended. In addition to hemocytes, the plasma also contains many chemicals. It is the major tissue type of the open circulatory system characteristic of arthropods (e.g. arachnids, crustaceans and insects).[1][2] In addition, some non-arthropods such as molluscs possess a hemolymphatic circulatory system.Contents1 Method of transport 2 Constituents2.1 Inorganic 2.2 Amino acids 2.3 Proteins 2.4 Other organic constituents3 Hemocytes 4 Comparisons to vertebrates 5 Specialist uses 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksMethod of transport[edit] In the grasshopper, the closed portion of the system consists of tubular hearts and an aorta running along the dorsal side of the insect
[...More...]

"Hemolymph" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Circulatory System
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood.[2] Blood
Blood
is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues
[...More...]

"Circulatory System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Invertebrate Trachea
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. This is the only complete tracheal ring, the others being incomplete rings of reinforcing cartilage. The trachealis muscle joins the ends of the rings and these are joined vertically by bands of fibrous connective tissue – the annular ligaments of trachea. The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing. The trachea develops in the second month of development. It is lined with an epithelium that has goblet cells which produce protective mucins (see Respiratory epithelium). An inflammatory condition, also involving the larynx and bronchi, called croup can result in a barking cough
[...More...]

"Invertebrate Trachea" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Gnathostomata
Gnathostomata
Gnathostomata
/ˌneɪθoʊstoʊˈmɑːtə/ are the jawed vertebrates. The term derives from Greek: γνάθος (gnathos) "jaw" + στόμα (stoma) "mouth". Gnathostome diversity comprises roughly 60,000 species, which accounts for 99% of all living vertebrates. In addition to opposing jaws, living gnathostomes have teeth, paired appendages, and a horizontal semicircular canal of the inner ear, along with physiological and cellular anatomical characters such as the myelin sheathes of neurons
[...More...]

"Gnathostomata" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Adaptive Immune System
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. Unlike the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system is highly specific to a particular pathogen
[...More...]

"Adaptive Immune System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Coagulation
Coagulation
Coagulation
(also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).[1] Coagulation
Coagulation
is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular (platelet) and a protein (coagulation factor) component.[2] The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood.[3] Coagulation
Coagulation
begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel
[...More...]

"Coagulation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
[...More...]

"Arthropod" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Hemocyte
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.Red blood cells – Erythrocytes White blood cells – Leukocytes Platelets – Thrombocytes.Together, these three kinds of blood cells add up to a total 45% of the blood tissue by volume, with the remaining 55% of the volume composed of plasma, the liquid component of blood.[1] The volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood (hematocrit) is measured by centrifuge or flow cytometry and is 45% of cells to total volume in males and 45% in females.[2] Haemoglobin
H

[...More...]

"Hemocyte" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Immune System
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity
[...More...]

"Immune System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Heart
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.[1] Blood
Blood
provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes.[2] In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.[3] In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles.[4][5] Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart.[6] Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers.[5] In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.[3] The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid
[...More...]

"Heart" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Crustacean
Thylacocephala? † BranchiopodaPhyllopoda SarsostracaRemipedia Cephalocarida MaxillopodaThecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida CopepodaOstracodaMyodocopa PodocopaMalacostracaPhyllocarida Hoplocarida EumalacostracaCladistically included but traditionally excluded groupsHexapodsCrustaceans (Crustacea /krʌˈsteɪʃə/) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.[1] The crustacean group is usually treated as a subphylum, and thanks to recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods.[2] Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans. The 67,000 described species range in size from
[...More...]

"Crustacean" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Lung
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
[...More...]

"Lung" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse
.