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Hanukkah
Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(/ˈhɑːnəkə/ HAH-nə-kə; Hebrew: חֲנֻכָּה‬ khanuká, Tiberian: khanuká, usually spelled חנוכה‎, pronounced [χanuˈka] in Modern Hebrew, [ˈχanukə] or [ˈχanikə] in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the time of the Maccabean
Maccabean
Revolt against the Seleucid
Seleucid
Empire. Hanukkah
Hanukkah
is observed for eight nights and days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev
Kislev
according to the Hebrew calendar, which may occur at any time from late November to late December in the Gregorian calendar
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Shammai
Shammai
Shammai
(50 BCE – 30 CE, Hebrew: שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. Shammai
Shammai
was the most eminent contemporary and the halakhic opponent of Hillel, and is almost invariably mentioned along with him. Although they were contemporaries, Hillel was nearly sixty years old at the time of Shammai's birth in ~50 BCE
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → ae). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] or [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6][7] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
or Israeli Hebrew (עברית חדשה‎, ʿivrít ḥadašá[h], [ivˈrit xadaˈʃa] – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew (עברית‎ Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic
Aramaic
beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language
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Tiberian Hebrew
Tiberian Hebrew
Hebrew
is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible or Tanakh
Tanakh
committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias
Tiberias
in ancient Judea c. 750–950 CE. They wrote in the form of Tiberian vocalization,[1] which employed diacritics added to the Hebrew
Hebrew
letters: vowel signs and consonant diacritics (nequdot) and the so-called accents (two related systems of cantillation signs or te'amim). These together with the marginal notes masora magna and masora parva make up the Tiberian apparatus. Though the written vowels and accents came into use only c. 750 CE, the oral tradition they reflect is many centuries older, with ancient roots
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Candelabrum
A candelabrum /ˌkændəlˈɑːbrəm, -æbrəm/ (plural candelabrums, candelabra, candelabras),[1] sometimes called a candle tree, is a candle holder with multiple arms. The word comes from Latin.[2][3] In modern usage the plural form "candelabra" is frequently used in the singular sense, with the true singular form "candelabrum" becoming rare. Likewise, "candelabra" and "candelabras" are preferred over "candelabrums" as the plural form.[1] Although the electrification of indoor lighting has relegated candleholders to the status of backup light sources in most homes and other buildings, interior designers continue to model light fixtures and lighting accessories after candelabra and candlesticks
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Scots Language
In the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak Scots.[3] Language
Language
familyIndo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicIngvaeonicAnglo-FrisianAnglicScotsEarly formsOld EnglishMiddle EnglishEarly ScotsMiddle ScotsDialectsCentral Southern Ulster Northern InsularWriting systemLatinOfficial statusOfficial language inNoneClassified as a "traditional language" by the Scottish Government. Classified as a "regional or minority language" under the
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Loch
Loch
Loch
(/lɒx/) is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet. It is cognate with the Manx lough, Cornish logh, and the Welsh word for lake, llyn. In English English
English English
and Hiberno-English, the anglicised spelling lough (/lɒx/ or /lɒk/) is commonly found in place names; in Lowland Scots and Scottish English, the spelling "loch" is always used. Some lochs could also be called firths, fjords, estuaries, straits or bays. Sea-inlet lochs are often called sea lochs or sea loughs
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Heth
Ḥet or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt , Hebrew Ḥēt ח‬, Aramaic Ḥēth , Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic
Arabic
Ḥā' ح. Heth originally represented a voiceless fricative, either pharyngeal /ħ/, or velar /x/ (the two Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
phonemes having merged in Canaanite[citation needed]). In Arabic, two corresponding letters were created for both phonemic sounds: unmodified ḥāʾ ح represents /ħ/, while ḫāʾ خ represents /x/. The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Eta Η, Etruscan , Latin H and Cyrillic И
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Voiceless Pharyngeal Fricative
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is an h-bar, ⟨ħ⟩. In the transcription of Arabic, Berber and other scripts, it is often written ⟨Ḥ⟩, ⟨ḥ⟩. Typically characterized as a fricative in the upper pharynx, it is often a whispered [h].Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless pharyngeal fricative:Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is pharyngeal, which means it is articulated with the tongue root against the back of the throat (the pharynx). Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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Voiceless Uvular Fricative
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨χ⟩, the Greek chi, or, in broad transcription, ⟨x⟩, the Latin and English letter x, although the latter technically represents the voiceless velar fricative
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Candle
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax or another flammable solid substance such as tallow that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance. It can also be used to provide heat, or used as a method of keeping time. A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler.[1] Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders to elaborate chandeliers.[2] For a candle to burn, a heat source (commonly a naked flame) is used to light the candle's wick, which melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel (the wax). Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to ignite and form a constant flame
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Geminate
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant. It is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it. Gemination literally means "twinning" and comes from the same Latin
Latin
root as "Gemini". Consonant
Consonant
length is distinctive in some languages, like Arabic, Berber, Maltese, Catalan, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Classical Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil and Telugu. Most languages (including English) do not have distinctive long consonants, however. Vowel length
Vowel length
is distinctive in more languages than consonant length is
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