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Gloucester
GLOUCESTER (/ˈɡlɒstər/ ( listen )) is a city and district in southwest England, the county city of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
. Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, on the River Severn
River Severn
, between the Cotswolds to the east and the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
to the southwest. Gloucester
Gloucester
was founded in AD 97 by the Romans under Emperor Nerva as Colonia Glevum Nervensis, and was granted its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II . Economically, the city is dominated by the service industries, and has a strong financial and business sector, and historically was prominent in the aerospace industry
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude . It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents
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UTC+1
UTC+01:00 is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This time is used in: * Central European Time
Central European Time
* West Africa Time
West Africa Time
* Western European Summer Time * British Summer Time
British Summer Time
* Irish Standard Time * Romance Standard Time (Microsoft Windows Control panel) * Swatch Internet Time
Swatch Internet Time
* EVE Online
EVE Online
In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T12:06:10+01:00
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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UTC0
UTC±00:00 is the following time: * Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC), the basis for the world's civil time. * Western European Time (Ireland , Portugal
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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Aerospace
AEROSPACE is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics ) and surrounding space (astronautics ). Aerospace
Aerospace
organisations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft and/or spacecraft . Aerospace
Aerospace
activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace
Aerospace
is not the same as airspace , which is the physical air space directly above a location on the ground. The beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100 km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity
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Jan Kip And Leonard Knyff
JOHANNES "JAN" KIP (1652/53, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
– 1722, Westminster
Westminster
) was a Dutch draftsman, engraver and print dealer. Together with Leonard Knyff , he made a speciality of engraved views of English country houses . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Partnership with Leonard Knyff * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links LIFEKip was a pupil of Bastiaen Stopendaal (1636–1707), from 1668 to 1670, before setting up on his own; his earliest dated engravings are from 1672. In April 1680, at the age of 27, he married Elisabeth Breda in Amsterdam. After producing works for the court of William of Orange in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, Kip followed William and Mary to London and settled in St. John Street in Farringdon , where he conducted a thriving printselling business. He also worked for various London publishers producing engravings after such artists as Francis Barlow (c
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Saxons
The SAXONS (Latin : Saxones, Old English
Old English
: Seaxe, Old Saxon : Sahson, Low German : Sassen, German : Sachsen, Dutch : Saksen, Welsh : Saeson) were a group of Germanic tribes first mentioned as living near the North Sea
North Sea
coast of what is now Germany
Germany
( Old Saxony ), in the late Roman empire . They were soon mentioned as raiding and settling in many North Sea
North Sea
areas, as well as pushing south inland towards the Franks
Franks
. Significant numbers settled in large parts of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and formed part of the merged group of Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
who eventually organised the first united Kingdom of England
England

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Sheriff
A SHERIFF is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland
Iceland
that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below
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Old English
OLD ENGLISH (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
Middle English

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex
Wessex
, during the reign of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116
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Welsh Language
'Cymraeg' pronounced REGION Spoken throughout Wales, and in Chubut province of Argentina NATIVE SPEAKERS All UK speakers : 700,000+ (2012) * Wales
Wales
: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales), (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users (reference) * England
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS CODES or GSS CODES referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out
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