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Gilgamesh
GILGAMESH (/ɡɪlˈɡɑːmɛʃ/ ; 𒄑𒂆𒈦, Gilgameš, originally BILGAMESH 𒄑𒉈𒂵𒈩) is the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
, an Akkadian
Akkadian
poem that is considered the first great work of literature, and in earlier Sumerian poems. In the epic, Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
is a demigod of superhuman strength who builds the city walls of Uruk
Uruk
to defend his people and after the death of his friend Enkidu
Enkidu
travels to meet the sage Utnapishtim
Utnapishtim
, who survived the Great Flood . His name means something to the effect of "The Ancestor is a Young-man" (J.L. Hayes "A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts"), from Bil.ga = Ancestor, Elder (J.Halloran Sum.Lexicon p. 33) and Mes/Mesh3 = Young-Man (Halloran Sum.Lexicon p. 174)
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Dingir
DINGIR (𒀭, usually transliterated DIĜIR Sumerian pronunciation: ) is a Sumerian word for "god ." Its cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in e.g. D Inanna . The cuneiform sign by itself was originally an ideogram for the Sumerian word an ("sky" or "heaven"); its use was then extended to a logogram for the word diĝir ("god" or goddess) and the supreme deity of the Sumerian pantheon An , and a phonogram for the syllable /an/. Akkadian took over all these uses and added to them a logographic reading for the native ilum and from that a syllabic reading of /il/. In Hittite orthography, the syllabic value of the sign was again only an
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Determinative
A DETERMINATIVE, also known as a TAXOGRAM or SEMAGRAM, is an ideogram used to mark semantic categories of words in logographic scripts which helps to disambiguate interpretation. They have no direct counterpart in spoken language, though they may derive historically from glyphs for real words, and functionally they resemble classifiers in East Asian and sign languages. For example, Egyptian hieroglyphic determinatives include symbols for divinities, people, parts of the body, animals, plants, and books/abstract ideas, which helped in reading but none of which were pronounced
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" ANTHEM: " Deutschlandlied
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Euphrates
The EUPHRATES (/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen ); Sumerian : 𒌓𒄒𒉣: Buranuna, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒌓𒄒𒉣: Purattu, Arabic
Arabic
: الفرات‎‎: al-Furāt, Syriac : ̇ܦܪܬ‎: Pǝrāt, Armenian : Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew : פרת‎‎: Perat, Turkish : Fırat, Kurdish : Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
Western Asia
. Together with the Tigris
Tigris
, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land between the Rivers"). Originating in eastern Turkey
Turkey
, the Euphrates
Euphrates
flows through Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
to join the Tigris
Tigris
in the Shatt al-Arab , which empties into the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

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Sulaymaniyah Museum
The SULAYMANIAYH MUSEUM (Kurdish: مۆزه‌خانه‌ی سلێمانی; Arabic: متحف السليمانية) is an archeological museum which is located within heart of the city of Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah
, Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah
Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. It is also known as SLEMANI MUSEUM or SULAIMANIYA MUSEUM.It is the second largest museum in Iraq, after the National Museum of Iraq
National Museum of Iraq
in Baghdad in terms of contents. It houses artifacts which date back to the pre-historic period to the late Islamic and Ottoman periods. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Opening * 1.2 Post-2003 * 1.3 UNESCO * 2 References HISTORYOPENING This is one of the two large halls of the Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah
Museum. The Museum was opened officially on July 14, 1961. Initially, it was composed of a small building in the Shorsh District
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Tell Haddad
Coordinates : 33°29′3″N 44°43′42″E / 33.48417°N 44.72833°E / 33.48417; 44.72833 Eshnunna Eshnunna C. 3000 BC–C. 1700 BC The extent of Eshnunna's influence c. 1764 BC CAPITAL Eshnunna GOVERNMENT Monarchy KING • c. 2000 BC Urguedinna (first) • c. 1700 BC Silli-Sin (last) HISTORICAL ERA Bronze Age
Bronze Age
• Established c. 3000 BC • Disestablished c. 1700 BC PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Apum First Babylonian Dynasty
First Babylonian Dynasty
TODAY PART OF Iraq
Iraq
ESHNUNNA (modern TELL ASMAR in Diyala Province
Diyala Province
, Iraq
Iraq
) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian
Akkadian
) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia

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Lagash
LAGASH /ˈleɪɡæʃ/ is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates
Euphrates
and Tigris
Tigris
rivers and east of Uruk , about 22 kilometres (14 mi) east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah , Iraq
Iraq
. Lagash
Lagash
(modern Al-Hiba) was one of the oldest cities of the Ancient Near East . The ancient site of Nina (modern Surghul) is around 10 km (6.2 mi) away and marks the southern limit of the state. Nearby Girsu (modern Telloh), about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Lagash, was the religious center of the Lagash
Lagash
state. Lagash's main temple was the E -Ninnu, dedicated to the god Ningirsu
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Qumran
QUMRAN (Hebrew : קומראן‎; Arabic : خربة قمران‎‎ Khirbet Qumran) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel 's Qumran National Park. It is located on a dry plateau about 1.5 km (1 mi) from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea , near the Israeli settlement and kibbutz of Kalya . The Hellenistic period settlement was constructed during the reign of John Hyrcanus , 134–104 BCE or somewhat later, and was occupied most of the time until it was destroyed by the Romans in 68 CE or shortly after. It is best known as the settlement nearest to the Qumran Caves where the Dead Sea Scrolls were hidden, caves in the sheer desert cliffs and beneath, in the marl terrace
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Claudius Aelianus
CLAUDIUS AELIANUS (Greek : Κλαύδιος Αἰλιανός; c. 175 – c. 235 CE), commonly AELIAN (/ˈiːliən/ ), born at Praeneste , was a Roman author and teacher of rhetoric who flourished under Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and probably outlived Elagabalus
Elagabalus
, who died in 222. He spoke Greek so perfectly that he was called "honey-tongued" (meliglossos); Roman-born, he preferred Greek authors, and wrote in a slightly archaizing Greek himself. His two chief works are valuable for the numerous quotations from the works of earlier authors, which are otherwise lost, and for the surprising lore, which offers unexpected glimpses into the Greco-Roman world-view
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Oracle
In classical antiquity , an ORACLE was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods . As such it is a form of divination . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Origins * 3 Pythia * 4 Dodona
Dodona
* 5 Trophonius * 6 Oracle
Oracle
of Menestheus * 7 "Oracles" in other cultures * 7.1 China * 7.2 Celtic polytheism * 7.3 Hinduism * 7.4 Tibetan Buddhism * 7.5 Pre-Columbian Americas * 7.6 Nigeria
Nigeria
* 7.7 Norse mythology * 7.8 Hawaii
Hawaii
* 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links DESCRIPTIONThe word oracle comes from the Latin
Latin
verb ōrāre "to speak" and properly refers to the priest or priestess uttering the prediction
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Al-Suyuti
ABū AL-FAḍL ‘ABD AL-RAḥMāN IBN ABī BAKR IBN MUḥAMMAD JALāL AL-DīN AL-KHUḍAYRī AL-SUYūṭī (Arabic : جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي‎; c. 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology. In 1486, he was appointed to a chair in the mosque of Baybars in Cairo
Cairo
. He adhered to the Shafi\'i madhhab and is one of the latter-day authorities of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
School, considered to be one of the Ashabun-Nazzar (Assessors) whose degree of ijtihad is agreed upon. An alternative spelling of his name is JALALUDDIN
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Cleric
CLERGY are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions . The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergyman, clergywoman, clergyperson and churchman. In Christianity
Christianity
the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons , priests , bishops , preachers , pastors , ministers and the Pope
Pope
. In Islam
Islam
, a religious leader is often known formally or informally as an imam , mufti , mullah or ayatollah . In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is often a rabbi or hazzan (cantor)
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Manichaeism
WESTERN * Revelation
Revelation
* Divine illumination * Divine light EASTERN * Jnana
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Oral Tradition
ORAL TRADITION, or ORAL LORE, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another. The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, ballads, chants, prose or verses. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history , oral literature , oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system , or in parallel to a writing system. Indian religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism, for example, have used an oral tradition, in parallel to a writing system, to transmit their canonical scriptures, secular knowledge such as Sushruta Samhita , hymns and mythologies from one generation to the next
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Encyclopædia Britannica
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ( Latin
Latin
for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. , is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia . It is written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors, who have included 110 Nobel Prize winners and five American presidents . The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition; digital content and distribution has continued since then. The Britannica is the oldest English-language encyclopaedia still in production. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1810) it had expanded to 20 volumes
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