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Garcinia
At least 50, see textSynonymsBrindonia Thouars Cambogia L. Clusianthemum Vieill. Mangostana Gaertn. Oxycarpus Lour. Pentaphalangium Warb. Rheedia L. Septogarcinia Kosterm. Tripetalum K.Schum. Tsimatimia Jum. & H.Perrier Verticillaria Ruiz & Pav. Xanthochymus Roxb. Garcinia
Garcinia
is a plant genus of the family Clusiaceae
Clusiaceae
native to Asia, America, Australia, tropical and southern Africa, and Polynesia. The number of species is highly disputed, with various sources recognizing between 50 and about 300. Commonly, the plants in this genus are called saptrees, mangosteens (which may also refer specifically to the purple mangosteen, G
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Tropical
The tropics are a region of the Earth
Earth
surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone)
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Habitat Destruction
Habitat
Habitat
destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.[1] Habitat
Habitat
destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industrial production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl
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South Andaman Island
South Andaman Island
South Andaman Island
is the southernmost island of the Great Andaman and is home to the majority of the population of the Andaman Islands. It belongs to the South Andaman administrative district, part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[6] It is the location of Port Blair, capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Administration 4 Demographics 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] South Andaman Island
South Andaman Island
was struck by the 2004 Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
earthquake, leading to many deaths on the island. Geography[edit] The island belongs to the Great Andaman
Great Andaman
Chain. Some areas of the island are restricted areas for non-Indians; however, transit permits can be obtained from the Home Ministry. South Andaman is the third largest island in the island group
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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Tree
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In looser definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.[1] A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Roxb.
William Roxburgh
William Roxburgh
FRSE
FRSE
FRCPE
FRCPE
FLS (3 or 29 June 1751 – 18 February 1815[1]) was a Scottish surgeon and botanist who worked extensively in India, describing species and working on economic botany. He is known as the founding father of Indian botany. He published numerous works on Indian botany, illustrated by careful drawings made by Indian artists and accompanied by taxonomic descriptions of a large number of plant species. Apart from the numerous species that he named, many species were named in his honour by his collaborators.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Recognition 4 Posthumous honours 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 External linksEarly life[edit] The family details of Roxburgh and his birth are not known with certainty. He was born either on the 3rd or the 29th of June 1751 in the estate of Underwood in the parish of Craigie, Ayrshire
Ayrshire
or possibly Symington
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Shrub
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall.[1] Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions
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Dioecious
Dioecy
Dioecy
(Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.[1] Dioecious reproduction is biparental reproduction
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Endocarp
Fruit
Fruit
anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.[1][2] Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers. In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds. But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary
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Lemon
The lemon, Citrus
Citrus
limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking
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