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Frontier Wire (Libya)
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush BoxThe Frontier Wire was a 271 km (168 mi) obstacle in Italian Libya, along the length of the border of British-held Egypt, running from El Ramleh, in the Gulf of Sollum (between Bardia
Bardia
and Sollum) south to Jaghbub parallel to the 25th meridian east, the Libya–Egypt and Libya–Sudan borders. The frontier wire and line of covering forts, were built by the Italians during the Second Italo- Senussi
Senussi
War (1923–1931), as a defensive system to contain the Senussi population, who crossed from Egypt
Egypt
during their resistance against the Italian colonisers
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25th Meridian East
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole
North Pole
across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica
Antarctica
to the South Pole. The 2
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Bardia
Bardia,[2] or El Burdi (Arabic: البردية or البردي‎) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya. It is also seldom known as Bórdi Slemán.[3] History[edit] In Roman times the town was known as Petras Maior.[4] During World War I, German U-boats made several landings in the port of Bardia in support of the Senussi order during their revolt against British and Italian colonial rule.[5] During World War II, it was the site of a major Italian fortification, invested by the XXIII Corps under the command of General Annibale Bergonzoli.[6] On 21 June 1940, the town was bombarded by the 7th Cruiser Squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet. The bombardment force consisted of the French battleship Lorraine, British cruisers HMS Orion and HMS Neptune, the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney, and the destroyers HMS Dainty, Decoy, Hasty, and HMAS Stuart.[7] However the bombardment is reported to have only caused minimal damage
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Siege Of Tobruk
Tobruk
Tobruk
or Tubruq (Ancient Greek: Αντίπυργος) (/təˈbrʊk, toʊ-/;[3] Arabic: طبرق‎ Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District
Butnan District
(formerly Tobruk
Tobruk
District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.).[4] Tobruk
Tobruk
was the site of an ancient Greek colony and, later, of a Roman fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica.[4] Over the centuries, Tobruk
Tobruk
also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan route.[4] By 1911, Tobruk
Tobruk
had become an Italian military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Devil's Gardens
The Devil's gardens
Devil's gardens
was the name given by Erwin Rommel,[1] commander of the German Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
during World War II, to the defensive entanglements of land mines and barbed wire protecting Axis defensive positions during the Second Battle of El Alamein
Second Battle of El Alamein
in late 1942. The defences stretch from the Mediterranean coast to the Qattara Depression.A Matilda scorpion tank equipped for mine clearing.During the 'break-in' phase of the British attack, the commander of the Eighth Army, Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery planned for engineers supporting the infantry brigades of 2nd New Zealand Division to clear lanes through the minefields, along which attacking formations would pass into the Axis positions. Engineers using hand tools were supplemented by Scorpion tanks equipped with rotating flails to explode anti-vehicle mines
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Sallum
Sallum, As Sallum, or Sollum (Arabic: السلوم‎ "Alternative", Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [essælˈluːm], Latin: Catabathmus Maior; Plynos Limen; Tetrapyrgia) is a village in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, east of the border with Libya, and around 145 km (90 mi) from Tobruk. Sallum
Sallum
is mainly a Bedouin
Bedouin
community. It has little if any tourist activity or organized historical curiosities. It is a regional trading center. Sallum
Sallum
was the ancient Roman port of Baranis, and there are some Roman wells still remaining in the area. It rests on the Northern coast of Egypt, but the location along the border with Libya, about as far west as one may travel in Egypt, means that it is out of the way of almost everything, with few attractions other than a World War II Commonwealth war cemetery
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Meridian (geography)
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude. The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees north or south of the Equator
Equator
the point is. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is also the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km (12,429.9 miles).Contents1 Etymology 2 Geographic 3 Magnetic 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "meridian" comes from the Latin meridies, meaning "midday"; the sun crosses a given meridian midway between the times of sunrise and sunset on that meridian. The same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a.m. (ante meridiem) and p.m
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Operation Braganza
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Box Operation Braganza was launched on the night of 29 September 1942 by Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks, commanding British XIII Corps. It was intended as a preliminary to Operation Lightfoot, part of the Second Battle of El Alamein. The objective was to capture an area of ground near Deir el Munassib in Egypt, to be used for extra artillery deployment. This would involve the 131st (Queen's) Infantry Brigade from the 44th (Home Counties) Division, supporting armour from the 4th Armoured Brigade, nine field regiments and one medium battery of artillery. Battle[edit] The artillery barrage commenced at 05.25
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Raid On Sidi Haneish Airfield
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush BoxThe Raid on Sidi Haneish Airfield
Sidi Haneish Airfield
was a military operation carried out on the night of 26 July 1942 by the British Special
Special
Air Service against a German airfield in Egypt
Egypt
during the Western Desert Campaign of Second World War. Allied commandos in jeeps under the command of Major David Stirling
David Stirling
raided an Axis landing strip and destroyed or damaged numerous Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
aircraft with machine-gun fire and explosives
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Battle Of Alam El Halfa
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush BoxThe Battle of Alam el Halfa
Battle of Alam el Halfa
took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein
El Alamein
during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. Panzerarmee Afrika—a German–Italian force commanded by Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
Erwin Rommel—attempted an envelopment of the British Eighth Army, commanded by Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery
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Operation Agreement
 United Kingdom Southern Rhodesia New Zealand  Italy  GermanyCommanders and leaders Lt. Col. John Edward Haselden  † Adm
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Operation Caravan
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Box Operation Caravan
Operation Caravan
was a subsidiary of Operation Agreement
Operation Agreement
under which four simultaneous raids were carried out against important Axis Lines of Communication positions in September 1942. The operations were against Tobruk
Tobruk
(Agreement), Benghazi
Benghazi
(Bigamy), Jalo oasis
Jalo oasis
(Nicety) and Barce (Caravan).[b] Caravan was the only successful operation of the group. As well as aiding in some of the operations, the Long Range Desert Group was to carry out the attack on the Italians at Barce, particularly the airfield there. To reach Barce, the force travelled 1,155 miles (1,859 km)
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Operation Bertram
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Box Operation Bertram
Operation Bertram
was a major Second World War
Second World War
deception operation practised by the allied forces in Egypt
Egypt
led by Bernard Montgomery
Bernard Montgomery
in the months leading up to the Second Battle of El Alamein
El Alamein
in 1942. Bertram was devised by Dudley Clarke
Dudley Clarke
to deceive Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
about the timing and location of the allied attack. The operation consisted of physical deceptions using dummies and camouflage, designed and made by the British Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate
Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate
led by Geoffrey Barkas
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Outpost Snipe
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush BoxThe defence of Outpost Snipe
Outpost Snipe
in Egypt, took place in the Second Battle of El Alamein, part of the Western Desert Campaign
Western Desert Campaign
during the Second World War. On the night of 26/27 October 1942, the 2nd Battalion
Battalion
of the Rifle Brigade (part of the 7th Motor Brigade), with thirteen 6-pounder anti-tank guns and the 239th Battery, 76th Anti-Tank Regiment RA, with six more 6-pounders, was ordered to occupy a desert feature known as Snipe, a small depression in the landscape 1.5 mi (2.4 km) south-west of Kidney Ridge that was suitable for an outpost
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