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French Units Of Measurement
France
France
has a unique history of units of measurement due to radical attempts to adopt a metric system following the French Revolution. In the Ancien régime, before 1795, France
France
used a system of measures that had many of the characteristics of the modern Imperial System
Imperial System
of units. There was widespread abuse of the king's standards to the extent that the lieue could vary from 3.268 km in Beauce
Beauce
to 5.849 km in Provence. In the revolutionary era, France
France
used the first version of the metric system. This system was not well received by the public. Between 1812 and 1837, the mesures usuelles was used – traditional names were restored, but were based on metric units: for example, the livre became 500 g
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Pernes-les-Fontaines
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Pernes-les-Fontaines
Pernes-les-Fontaines
is a commune in the Vaucluse
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Hectare
The hectare (/ˈhɛktɛər, -tɑːr/; SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares (10,000 m2) or 1 square hectometre (hm2) and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre.[1] An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare ("hecto-" + "are") was thus 100 "ares" or ​1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units (SI), the are was not included as a recognised unit
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Stère
The stere or stère is a unit of volume in the original metric system equal to one cubic metre. The name was coined from the Greek στερεός stereos, "solid", in 1793 France
France
as a metric analogue to the cord. The stère is typically used for measuring large quantities of firewood or other cut wood,[1] while the cubic meter is used for uncut wood.[2] It is not part of the modern metric system (SI). In Dutch, there is also a kuub, short for kubieke meter which differs from a stere. Whereas a "kuub" is a solid cubic metre, as it was traditionally used for wood, a stère is a cubic metre pile of woodblocks. A stère is less than a kuub or full cubic metre of wood, because the spaces between the woodblocks are included in a stère, while they do not count towards a kuub
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Litre
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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Gram
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme;[1] SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice"[2] (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water)
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SI Prefix
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in common use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well.[1] Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand: one kilogram is equal to one thousand grams. The prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand; one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal
Decimal
multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the metric system, with six dating back to the system's introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units
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César-François Cassini De Thury
César-François Cassini de Thury (17 June 1714 – 4 September 1784), also called Cassini III or Cassini de Thury, was a French astronomer and cartographer.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Cassini de Thury was born in Thury-sous-Clermont, in the Oise department, the second son of Jacques Cassini and Suzanne Françoise Charpentier de Charmois. He was a grandson of Giovanni Domenico Cassini, and would become the father of Jean-Dominique Cassini, Comte de Cassini. In 1739, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences as a supernumerary adjunct astronomer, in 1741 as an adjunct astronomer, and in 1745 as a full member astronomer. In January, 1751 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.[1] He succeeded to his father’s official position in 1756 and continued the hereditary surveying operations
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History Of The Metre
In the aftermath of the French Revolution (1789), the traditional units of measure used in the Ancien Régime were replaced. The livre monetary unit was replaced by the decimal franc, and a new unit of length was introduced which became known as the metre
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Angular Measurement
2D anglesRight Interior Exterior2D angle pairsAdjacent Vertical Complementary Supplementary Transversal3D anglesDihedralAn angle formed by two rays emanating from a vertex.In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.[1] Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane. Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes in Euclidean and other spaces. These are called dihedral angles. Angles formed by the intersection of two curves in a plane are defined as the angle determined by the tangent rays at the point of intersection. Similar statements hold in space, for example, the spherical angle formed by two great circles on a sphere is the dihedral angle between the planes determined by the great circles. Angle is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation
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Grad (angle)
The gradian is a unit of measurement of an angle, equivalent to 1 400 textstyle frac 1 400 of a turn,[1] 9 10 textstyle frac 9 10 of a degree, or π 200 textstyle frac pi 200 of a radian. It is also known as gon (from Greek γωνία/gōnía for angle), grad, or grade. In continental Europe, the French term centigrade was in use for one hundredth of a grad. This was one reason for the adoption of the term Celsius
Celsius
to replace centigrade as the name of the temperature scale.[2][3]Contents1 History 2 Benefits 3 Use in surveying 4 Conversion 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The unit originated in connection with the French Revolution
French Revolution
in France as the grade, along with the metric system, hence it is occasionally referred to as a "metric degree"
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Napoleon I Of France
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Baden
Baden
Baden
is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg
Württemberg
and the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it currently[timeframe?] forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg.[1] History[edit] Following the dissolution of the old Duchy of Swabia, Baden
Baden
underwent a history which can be summarized as follows: Margraviate of Baden
Margraviate of Baden
(1112–1806) Electorate of Baden
Electorate of Baden
(1803–1806) Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
(1806–1918) Republic of Baden
Republic of Baden
(1918–1945)After World War II this territory was subdivided between Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
and Baden
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871
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