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Four Noble Truths
The Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism[1] in a short expression:[2][note 1] we crave and cling to impermanent states and things,[3] which are dukkha,[4] "incapable of satisfying"[web 1] and painful.[web 1][3][5][6][7][web 2] This craving keeps us caught in samsara,[note 2] the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the dukkha that comes with it.[note 3] There is, however, a way to end this cycle,[8][note 4] namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated dukkha will no longer arise again.[note 5][9] This can be accomplish
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Khmer Language
Khmer /kmɛər/[4] or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ [pʰiːəsaː kʰmaːe], or more formally ខេមរភាសា [kʰeɛmaʔraʔ pʰiːəsaː]) is the language of the Khmer people
Khmer people
and the official language of Cambodia. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese). Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
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Vietnamese Language
Vietnamese /viˌɛtnəˈmiːz/ ( listen) (Tiếng Việt) is a Viet–Muong language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers (several times as many as the other Austroasiatic languages combined).[6] Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation
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Thai Language
Thai,[3] Central Thai,[4] or Siamese,[5] is the national and official language of Thailand
Thailand
and the first language of the Thai people
Thai people
and the vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Tai–Kadai language family. Over half of its words are borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon, and Old Khmer
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THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription
The THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription of Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
(or THL Phonetic Transcription for short) is a system for the phonetic rendering of the Tibetan language. It was created by David Germano
David Germano
and Nicolas Tournadre
Nicolas Tournadre
and was published on 12 December 2003
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Wylie Transliteration
The Wylie transliteration
Wylie transliteration
scheme is a method for transliterating Tibetan script
Tibetan script
using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V
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Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan[4] is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
is often called Lhasa
Lhasa
Tibetan.[5] Tibetan is an official[6] language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China
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Sinhalese Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
Brahmi script<

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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China
China
Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China)Language codesISO 639-1 koISO 639-2 korISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto KoreanLinguist Listokm Middle Korean  oko Old KoreanGlottolog kore1280[2]Linguasphere 45-AAA-aCountries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡPronunciation /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/Native to MongoliaRegion All of state Mongolia
Mongolia
and Inner Mongolia, parts of Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang
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Rōmaji
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script
Latin script
to write the Japanese language.[1] This method of writing is sometimes referred to in English as rōmaji (ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters") ([ɾoːmaꜜʑi] ( listen). There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization ( ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used. Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, and in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language
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Bengali Language
অবহট্টOld BengaliDialectssee Bengali dialectsWriting system Eastern Nagari script
Eastern Nagari script
(Bengali alphabet) Bengali BrailleSigned formsBengali signed forms[4]Official statusOfficial language in Bangladesh   India
India
(in West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
& Southern Assam)Regulated by Bangla Academy Paschimbanga Bangla AkademiLanguage codesISO 639-1 bnISO 639-2 benISO 639-3 benGlottolog beng1280[5]Linguasphere 59-AAF-uBengali speaking region of South AsiaBengali speakers around the worldThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Bengali text
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Bihar
Bihar
Bihar
(/bɪˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is an Indian state
Indian state
considered to be a part of Eastern[11][12] as well as Northern India.[13][14][15] It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India
India
by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
to its west, Nepal
Nepal
to the north, the northern part of West Bengal
West Bengal
to the east, with Jharkhand
Jharkhand
to the south
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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