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FM Broadcast Band
The FM BROADCAST BAND, used for FM broadcast radio by radio stations , differs between different parts of the world. In Europe, Australia
Australia
and Africa ((defined as International Telecommunication Union (ITU) region 1)), it spans from 87.5 to 108 megahertz (MHz) - also known as VHF Band II - while in the Americas ( ITU region 2) it ranges from 88 to 108 MHz. The FM broadcast band in Japan
Japan
uses 76 to 95 MHz. The International Radio and Television Organisation
International Radio and Television Organisation
(OIRT) band in Eastern Europe
Europe
is from 65.8 to 74.0 MHz, although these countries now primarily use the 87.5 to 108 MHz band, as in the case of Russia
Russia
. Some other countries have already discontinued the OIRT band and have changed to the 87.5 to 108 MHz band
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Radio Engineering
Broadcast engineer Broadcast design engineer Broadcast systems engineer Broadcast IT engineer Broadcast IT systems engineer Broadcast network
Broadcast network
engineer Broadcast maintenance engineer Video
Video
broadcast engineer TV studio broadcast engineer Outside broadcast engineer Remote broadcast engineer OCCUPATION TYPE profession DESCRIPTION COMPETENCIES Technical knowledge, Management skills, Professionalism EDUCATION REQUIRED see professional requirements Fields of employment Radio
Radio
, television , military RELATED JOBS Technologist , RF engineer , engineering technician , Technical operator BROADCAST ENGINEERING is the field of electrical engineering , and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology , which deals with radio and television broadcasting
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List Of Broadcast Station Classes
This is a LIST OF BROADCAST STATION CLASSES applicable in much of North America under international agreements between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power
(ERP) and height above average terrain (HAAT) are listed unless otherwise noted. All radio and television stations within 320 kilometers (about 200 miles) of the US-Canada or US-Mexico border
US-Mexico border
must get approval by both the domestic and foreign agency. These agencies are Industry Canada / Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) in Canada, the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in the US, and the Federal Telecommunications Institute (IFT) in Mexico
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Tuner (radio)
A TUNER is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output. Broadcast FM /AM transmissions usually feed this intermediate frequency (IF) directly into a demodulator that convert the radio signal into audio-frequency signals that can be fed into an amplifier to drive a loudspeaker . More complex transmissions like PAL
PAL
/ NTSC
NTSC
(TV), DAB (digital radio), DVB-T
DVB-T
/ DVB-S / DVB-C
DVB-C
(digital TV) etc. use a wider frequency bandwidth, often with several subcarriers . These are transmitted inside the receiver as an intermediate frequency (IF)
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Automobile
A CAR (or AUTOMOBILE) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation . Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires , and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen
Benz Patent-Motorwagen
. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T , an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world
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The Bahamas
Coordinates : 24°15′N 76°00′W / 24.250°N 76.000°W / 24.250; -76.000 Commonwealth of The Bahamas Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Forward, Upward, Onward, Together" ANTHEM: March On, Bahamaland ROYAL ANTHEM : God Save the Queen
God Save the Queen
Capital and largest city Nassau 25°4′N 77°20′W / 25.067°N 77.333°W / 25.067; -77.333 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES English RECOGNISED REGIONAL LANGUAGES
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Mexico
Coordinates : 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102 United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Himno Nacional Mexicano
Himno Nacional Mexicano
" (English: "Mexican National Anthem") Capital and largest city Mexico City
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * None at federal level * Spanish (de facto) RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES* Spanish 68 native language groups
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Capture Effect
In telecommunications , the CAPTURE EFFECT, or FM CAPTURE EFFECT, is a phenomenon associated with FM reception in which only the stronger of two signals at, or near, the same frequency or channel will be demodulated . The capture effect is defined as the complete suppression of the weaker signal at the receiver limiter (if it has one) where the weaker signal is not amplified , but attenuated . When both signals are nearly equal in strength, or are fading independently, the receiver may switch from one to the other and exhibit picket fencing . The capture effect can occur at the signal limiter, or in the demodulation stage, for circuits that do not require a signal limiter. Some types of radio receiver circuits have a stronger capture effect than others. The measurement of how well a receiver can reject a second signal on the same frequency is called the capture ratio for a specific receiver
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Selectivity (electronic)
SELECTIVITY is a measure of the performance of a radio receiver to respond only to the radio signal it is tuned to (such as a radio station ) and reject other signals nearby in frequency , such as another broadcast on an adjacent channel . Selectivity is usually measured as a ratio in decibels (dBs), comparing the signal strength received against that of a similar signal on another frequency . If the signal is at the adjacent channel of the selected signal, this measurement is also known as ADJACENT-CHANNEL REJECTION RATIO (ACRR). Selectivity also provides some immunity to blanketing interference. LC circuits are often used as filters; the Q ("Quality" factor) determines the bandwidth of each LC tuned circuit in the radio. The L/C ratio, in turn, determines their Q and so their selectivity, because the rest of the circuit - the aerial or amplifier feeding the tuned circuit for example - will contain present resistance
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada
O Canada
"------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen
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Birmingham, Alabama
BIRMINGHAM (/ˈbɜːrmɪŋhæm/ BUR-ming-ham ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alabama
Alabama
and the county seat of Jefferson County . The city's population was 212,237 in the 2010 United States Census . In the 2010 US Census, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of about 1,128,047, which is approximately one-quarter of Alabama's population. Birmingham
Birmingham
was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War Reconstruction period , through the merger of three pre-existing farm towns, notably, former Elyton . It was named for Birmingham
Birmingham
, England, the UK's second largest city and then major industrial city
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Denver, Colorado
DENVER (/ˈdɛnvər/ ), officially the CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Colorado
Colorado
. Denver
Denver
is in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains . The Denver
Denver
downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River , approximately 12 mi (19 km) east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver
Denver
is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile ( 5280 feet or 1609.3 meters) above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States
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HAAT
HEIGHT ABOVE AVERAGE TERRAIN (HAAT) (or less popularly, EHAAT, Effective Height Above Average Terrain) is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio
FM radio
and television , as it is more important than effective radiated power (ERP) in determining the range of broadcasts (VHF and UHF in particular, as they are line of sight transmissions). For international coordination, it is officially measured in meters, even by the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
in the United States
United States
, as Canada
Canada
and Mexico
Mexico
have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries
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Channel (communications)
A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL or simply CHANNEL refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking . A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream , from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers . A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second . Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared). Cable or wire line media use physical wires of cables to transmit data and information. Twisted-pair wire and coaxial cables are made of copper, and fiber-optic cable is made of glass
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Frequency Deviation
FREQUENCY DEVIATION ( F {DISPLAYSTYLE F_{DELTA }} ) is used in FM radio to describe the maximum difference between an FM modulated frequency and the nominal carrier frequency . The term is sometimes mistakenly used as synonymous with frequency drift , which is an unintended offset of an oscillator from its nominal frequency. The frequency deviation of a radio is of particular importance in relation to bandwidth , because less deviation means that more channels can fit into the same amount of frequency spectrum . The FM broadcasting range (87.5–108 MHz, NOTE: In some countries the 87.5–88.0 MHz part of the band is not used) uses a channel spacing of 200 kHz, with a maximum frequency deviation of 75 kHz, leaving a 25 kHz buffer above the highest and below the lowest frequency to reduce interaction with other channels. AM broadcasting uses a channel spacing of 10 kHz, but with amplitude modulation frequency deviation is irrelevant
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