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Flowering Plants
sweet bayScientific classificationKingdom: PlantaeSubkingdom: Embryophyta(unranked): Spermatophyta(unranked): AngiospermsGroups (APG IV)[1]Basal angiospermsAmborellales Nymphaeales AustrobaileyalesCore angiospermsmagnoliids Chloranthales monocots Ceratophyllales eudicotsSynonyms Anthophyta Cronquist[2] Angiospermae Lindl. Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht.
Takht.
& W.Zimm.[3] Magnolicae Takht.[4]The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae[5][6] or Magnoliophyta,[7] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.[8] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds
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Early Cretaceous
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including Psittacosaurus, spinosaurids, carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs, while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants)[2] appear for the first time. Also, Birds appear for the first time. See also[edit]Geology portal Palaeontology portal Time portalGeologic PeriodReferences[edit]^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C. Nixon & X. Wang 2002. Archaefructaceae, a New Basal Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Family
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllum
Ceratophyllum
is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants including four accepted species in 2016,[3] commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions. It is the only genus in the family Ceratophyllaceae,[2] itself the only family in the order Ceratophyllales.[4] They are usually called coontails or hornworts, although hornwort is also used for unrelated plants of the division Anthocerotophyta. Ceratophyllum
Ceratophyllum
grows completely submerged, usually, though not always, floating on the surface, and does not tolerate drought. The plant stems can reach 1–3 m in length. At intervals along nodes of the stem they produce rings of bright green leaves, which are narrow and often much-branched. The forked leaves are brittle and stiff to the touch in some species, softer in others
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Eudicots
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[1] The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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John Lindley
John Lindley
John Lindley
FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.Contents1 Early years 2 Career2.1 Horticultural Society of London3 Middle years 4 Later years 5 Selected writings5.1 Taxonomic works 5.2 Edited works6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEarly years[edit] Born in Catton, near Norwich, England, John Lindley
John Lindley
was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley was a nurseryman and pomologist and ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness. As a boy he would assist in the garden and also collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside
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Arthur J. Cronquist
Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae. He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
as well as being the primary co-author to the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, still the most up to date flora for three northwest U.S. States to date. Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete, and Cronquistianthus, which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium. The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E
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W.Zimm.
Walter Max Zimmermann (May 9, 1892 – June 30, 1980) was a German botanist and systematist. Zimmernann’s notions of classifying life objectively based on phylogenetic methods and on evolutionarily important characters were foundational for modern phylogenetics. Though they were later implemented by Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
in his fundamental work on phylogenetic systematics, Zimmermann's contributions to this field have largely been overlooked. Zimmermann also made several significant developments in the field of plant systematics such as the discovery of the telome theory. The standard botanical author abbreviation W.Zimm
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Genera
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Amborellales
Amborella
Amborella
is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia.[4] The genus is the only member of the family Amborellaceae
Amborellaceae
and the order Amborellales
Amborellales
and contains a single species, Amborella
Amborella
trichopoda.[5] Amborella
Amborella
is of great interest to plant systematists because molecular phylogenetic analyses consistently place it as the sister group of the remaining flowering plants.Contents1 Description 2 Phylogeny 3 Classification3.1 Older systems4 Genomic and evolutionary considerations 5 Ecology 6 Conservation 7 Gallery 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksDescription[edit] Amborella
Amborella
is a sprawling shrub or small tree up to 8 m high
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Gymnosperm
Pinophyta
Pinophyta
(or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta
Ginkgophyta
- Ginkgo Cycadophyta
Cycadophyta
- Cycads Gnetophyta
Gnetophyta
- Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Encephalartos sclavoi
Encephalartos sclavoi
cone, about 30 cm longThe gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The term "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek composite word γυμνόσπερμος (γυμνός gymnos, "naked" and σπέρμα sperma, "seed"), meaning "naked seeds". The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state). The non-encased condition of their seeds stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary
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Endosperm
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production
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Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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