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Flowering Plants
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae
Plantae
Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales
Amborellales
* Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms
Core angiosperms
* magnoliids * Chloranthales
Chloranthales
* monocots * Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
* eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl
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John Lindley
JOHN LINDLEY FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist . CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Career * 2.1 Horticultural Society of London
London
* 3 Middle years * 4 Later years * 5 Selected writings * 5.1 Taxonomic works * 5.2 Edited works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links EARLY YEARSBorn in Catton , near Norwich
Norwich
, England, John Lindley
John Lindley
was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley was a nurseryman and pomologist and ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness. As a boy he would assist in the garden and also collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside
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Arthur J. Cronquist
ARTHUR JOHN CRONQUIST (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States
United States
biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae . He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
. Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete , and Cronquistianthus , which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium . The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E. Robinson
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W.Zimm.
WALTER MAX ZIMMERMANN (May 9, 1892 – June 30, 1980) was a German botanist and systematist . Zimmernann’s notions of classifying life objectively based on phylogenetic methods and on evolutionarily important characters were foundational for modern phylogenetics. Though they were later implemented by Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
in his fundamental work on phylogenetic systematics, Zimmermann's contributions to this field have largely been overlooked. Zimmermann also made several significant developments in the field of plant systematics such as the discovery of the telome theory . The standard botanical author abbreviation W.ZIMM. is applied to species he described. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Major contributions * 2.1 Modern phylogenetics * 2.2 Plant systematics * 3 Selected publications * 4 References BIOGRAPHYWalter Zimmermann was born in Walldürn , Germany
Germany

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Gymnosperm
Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Encephalartos sclavoi cone, about 30 cm long The GYMNOSPERMS are a group of seed-producing plants (spermatophytes ) that includes conifers ( Pinophyta ), cycads , Ginkgo
Ginkgo
, and gnetophytes . The term "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek composite word γυμνόσπερμος (γυμνός gymnos, "naked" and σπέρμα sperma, "seed"), meaning "naked seeds". The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state). The non-encased condition of their seeds stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms ), which are enclosed within an ovary
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Core Angiosperms
MESANGIOSPERMAE (core angiosperms) is a group of flowering plants (angiosperms), informally called "mesangiosperms". They are one of two main clades of angiosperms. It is a name created under the rules of the PhyloCode system of phylogenetic nomenclature . There are about 350,000 species of mesangiosperms. The mesangiosperms contain about 99.95% of the flowering plants, assuming that there are about 175 species not in this group and about 350,000 that are. While such a clade with a similar circumscription exists in the APG III system , it was not given a name. CONTENTS * 1 Phylogeny * 2 Name * 3 Description * 4 History * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links PHYLOGENYBesides the mesangiosperms, the other groups of flowering plants are Amborellales
Amborellales
, Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
, and Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales

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Early Cretaceous
The EARLY CRETACEOUS/MIDDLE CRETACEOUS (geochronological name) or the LOWER CRETACEOUS (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including Psittacosaurus , spinosaurids , carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs , while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants) appear for the first time. SEE ALSO * Geology portal * Palaeontology portal * Time portal * Geologic Period REFERENCES * ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale * ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C
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Ceratophyllales
CERATOPHYLLUM is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants including four accepted species in 2016, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions. It is the only genus in the family CERATOPHYLLACEAE, itself the only family in the order CERATOPHYLLALES. They are usually called COONTAILS or HORNWORTS, although hornwort is also used for unrelated plants of the division Anthocerotophyta . Ceratophyllum grows completely submerged, usually, though not always, floating on the surface, and does not tolerate drought. The plant stems can reach 1–3 m in length. At intervals along nodes of the stem they produce rings of bright green leaves , which are narrow and often much-branched. The forked leaves are brittle and stiff to the touch in some species, softer in others. The plants have no roots at all, but sometimes they develop modified leaves with a rootlike appearance, which anchor the plant to the bottom
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Character (biology)
A PHENOTYPIC TRAIT, or simply TRAIT, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism ; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a CHARACTER of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms * 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms * 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits * 5 Schizotypy * 6 See also * 7 Citations * 8 References DEFINITIONA phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color; underlying genes, which make up the genotype , "control" the hair color, but the actual hair color, the part we see, is the phenotype
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Endosperm
ENDOSPERM is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch , though it can also contain oils and protein . This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour ), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. Other examples of endosperm that forms the bulk of the edible portion are coconut "meat" and coconut "water", and corn . Some plants, such as orchids , lack endosperm in their seeds
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Rose
See List of Rosa species SYNONYMS * Hulthemia Dumort. * ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)A ROSE is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus ROSA, in the family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars . They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles . Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia
Asia
, with smaller numbers native to Europe
Europe
, North America
North America
, and northwestern Africa
Africa
. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies
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Ecological Niche
In ecology , a NICHE (CanE , UK : /ˈniːʃ/ or US : /ˈnɪtʃ/ ) is a term with a variety of meanings related to the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators , parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). "The type and number of variables comprising the dimensions of an environmental niche vary from one species to another the relative importance of particular environmental variables for a species may vary according to the geographic and biotic contexts". The notion of ecological niche is central to ecological biogeography , which focuses on spatial patterns of ecological communities
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Terrestrial Ecoregion
An ECOREGION (ECOLOGICAL REGION) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion , which in turn is smaller than an ecozone . All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem . Ecoregions
Ecoregions
cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species . The biodiversity of flora , fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point). Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa
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Stamen
The STAMEN (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen -producing reproductive organ of a flower . Collectively the stamens form the ANDROECIUM. CONTENTS * 1 Morphology and terminology * 2 Etymology * 3 Variation in morphology * 4 Pollen
Pollen
production * 5 Sexual reproduction in plants * 6 Descriptive terms * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYA stamen typically consists of a stalk called the FILAMENT and an ANTHER which contains microsporangia . Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the CONNECTIVE. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte . The stamens in a flower are collectively called the ANDROECIUM. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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