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Fighter Pilot
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft. Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial warfare and dogfighting (close range aerial combat). A fighter pilot with at least five air-to-air kills becomes known as an ace.Contents1 Recruitment 2 Fitness 3 Tactics3.1 Offensive 3.2 Defensive 3.3 Defense against missiles 3.4 G-force4 Notable fighter pilots 5 Female fighter pilots5.1 Female Fighter Pilots Killed in Combat And Air Crashes6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading8.1 Non-fiction 8.2 Fiction9 External linksRecruitment[edit] Fighter pilots are one of the most highly regarded and desirable positions of any air force. Selection processes only accept the elite out of all the potential candidates. An individual who possesses an exceptional academic record, physical fitness, healthy well-being, and a strong mental drive will have a higher chance of being selected for pilot training
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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G-force
The g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower-case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Alexander Pokryshkin
Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Покры́шкин; 6 March 1913 – 13 November 1985) was a top Soviet flying ace and a Marshal of the Soviet Air Force. He was made a Hero of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on three separate occasions (24 May 1943, 24 August 1943, and 19 August 1944). Pokryshkin was, in addition to his three Hero of the Soviet Union golden stars, awarded six Orders of Lenin
Orders of Lenin
(22 December 1941 - № 7086; 24 May 1943 - № 9600; 24 August 1943 - № 124904; 21 October 1967 - № 344099; 21 February 1978 - № 429973; 5 March 1983 - № 400362), the Order of the October Revolution, four Orders of the Red Banner, two Orders of Suvorov (2nd class), two Orders of the Red Star, a number of other medals, and foreign orders, such as the US Army Distinguished Service Medal
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Electronic Countermeasure
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to protect aircraft from guided missiles. Most air forces use ECM to protect their aircraft from attack. It has also been deployed by military ships and recently on some advanced tanks to fool laser/IR guided missiles. It is frequently coupled with stealth advances so that the ECM systems have an easier job. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming
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Chaff (countermeasure)
Chaff, originally called Window[1] by the British and Düppel by the Second World War
Second World War
era German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
(from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns. Modern armed forces use chaff (in naval applications, for instance, using short-range SRBOC rockets) to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defense
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AIM-120 AMRAAM
• Hughes: 1991–97 • Raytheon: 1997–presentUnit cost• $300,000–$400,000 for 120C variants • $1,786,000(FY2014) for 120D[1]Variants AIM-120A, AIM-120B, AIM-120C, AIM-120C-4/5/6/7, AIM-120DSpecificationsWeight 335 lb (152 kg)Length 12 ft (3.7 m)Diameter 7 in (180 mm)Warhead High explosive
High explosive
blast-fragmentation • AIM-120A/B: WDU-33/B, 50 pounds (22.7 kg) • AIM-120C-5: WDU-41/B, 40 pounds (18.1 kg)Detonation mechanismActive RADAR Target Detection Device (TDD) Quadrant Target Detection Devi
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Infrared Homing
Infrared
Infrared
homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as "heat-seekers", since infrared is radiated strongly by hot bodies. Many objects such as people, vehicle engines and aircraft generate and emit heat, and as such, are especially visible in the infrared wavelengths of light compared to objects in the background. Infrared
Infrared
seekers are passive devices, which, unlike radar, provide no indication that they are tracking a target
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Antonio Bautista
9th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 5th Fighter Wing Commander, Joint 7th and 9th Fighter Squadron, SATAGBattles/wars Philippine Insurgency Wars of the 70'sAwards Distinguished Conduct Star
Distinguished Conduct Star
(1) Gold Cross of Gallantry (2) Military Merit Medal (7) Silver Wing Medal (2) Distinguished Aviation Cross (2) Military Commendation Medal (1)Antonio M. Bautista (September 17, 1937– January 11, 1974) was an F-86 Sabre pilot who served in the Philippine Air Force. He served in the aerobatic display team the Blue Diamonds and fought against rebels in the south of the country
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AIM-9 Sidewinder
The AIM-9 Sidewinder
AIM-9 Sidewinder
is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy
United States Navy
at China Lake, California, in the 1950s, and subsequently adopted by the United States
United States
Air Force. Since its entry into service in 1956, the Sidewinder has proved to be an enduring international success, and its latest variants are still standard equipment in most western-aligned air forces.[3] The Soviet K-13, a reverse-engineered copy of the AIM-9, was also widely adopted by a number of nations. The majority of Sidewinder variants utilize infrared homing for guidance; the AIM-9C variant used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the AGM-122 Sidearm
AGM-122 Sidearm
anti-radar missile. The Sidewinder is the most widely used missile in the West, with more than 110,000 missiles produced for the U.S
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Supercooling
Supercooling, also known as undercooling,[1] is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.Contents1 Explanation 2 Constitutional supercooling 3 In animals 4 In plants 5 Applications 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksExplanation[edit] A liquid crossing its standard freezing point will crystalize in the presence of a seed crystal or nucleus around which a crystal structure can form creating a solid. Lacking any such nuclei, the liquid phase can be maintained all the way down to the temperature at which crystal homogeneous nucleation occurs
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Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Flare (countermeasure)
A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile. Flares are commonly composed of a pyrotechnic composition based on magnesium or another hot-burning metal, with burning temperature equal to or hotter than engine exhaust. The aim is to make the infrared-guided missile seek out the heat signature from the flare rather than the aircraft's engines.Contents1 Tactics 2 Usage 3 Process3.1 Ignition 3.2 Deployment 3.3 Decoying4 Materials used4.1 Pyrotechnic
Pyrotechnic
flares4.1.1 Blackbody
Blackbody
payloads 4.1.2 Spectrally balanced payloads4.2 Pyrophoric
Pyrophoric
flares 4.3 Highly flammable payloads5 See also 6 ReferencesTactics[edit] In contrast to radar-guided missiles, IR-guided missiles are very difficult to find as they approach aircraft
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G-LOC
G-force
G-force
induced loss of consciousness (abbreviated as G-LOC, pronounced 'JEE-lock') is a term generally used in aerospace physiology to describe a loss of consciousness occurring from excessive and sustained g-forces draining blood away from the brain causing cerebral hypoxia. The condition is most likely to affect pilots of high performance fighter and aerobatic aircraft or astronauts but is possible on some extreme amusement park rides. G-LOC incidents have caused fatal accidents in high performance aircraft capable of sustaining high g for extended periods
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