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Europeans In Medieval China
Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China
China
during the period of Mongol rule.[1] These were people from countries traditionally belonging to the lands of Christendom
Christendom
during the High to Late Middle Ages who visited, traded, performed Christian missionary
Christian missionary
work, or lived in China
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Cloud Platform At Juyong Pass
Coordinates: 40°17′20″N 116°04′05″E / 40.289°N 116.068°E / 40.289; 116.068View of the Cloud Platform from the northThe Cloud Platform at Juyongguan
Juyongguan
(simplified Chinese: 居庸关云台; traditional Chinese: 居庸關雲臺; pinyin: Jūyōngguān Yúntái) is a mid-14th-century architectural feature situated in the Guangou Valley at the Juyongguan
Juyongguan
Pass of the Great Wall of China, in the Changping District
Changping District
of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of central Beijing. Although the structure looks like a gateway, it was originally the base for three white dagobas or stupas, with a passage through it, a type of structure known as a "crossing street tower" (simplified Chinese: 过街塔; traditional Chinese: 過街塔; pinyin: Guòjiētǎ)
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Society Of Jesus
The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Church Of The East
The Church of the East
Church of the East
(Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ‎ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church,[note 1] was an Eastern Christian Church originating during the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan
Assuristan
in the Parthian Empire, before spreading to other parts of Asia
Asia
during the late antiquity period and throughout the middle ages. It originated as an eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and used the East Syriac Rite
East Syriac Rite
in liturgy. It developed distinctive theological and ecclesiological traditions, and played a major role in the history of Christianity in Asia
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Pax Mongolica
The Pax Mongolica
Pax Mongolica
(Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica[1] ("Tatar Peace") is a historiographical term, modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana, which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
on the social, cultural, and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols
Mongols
conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast conquests. The conquests of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(r. 1206–1227) and his successors, spanning from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to Eastern Europe, effectively connected the Eastern world
Eastern world
with the Western world
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Yangzhou
Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing
Nanjing
to the southwest, Huai'an
Huai'an
to the north, Yancheng
Yancheng
to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
across the river to the south. Its population was 4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980 inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the agglomeration. Historically, Yangzhou
Yangzhou
was one of the wealthiest cities in China, known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets, artists, and scholars. Its name (lit
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Han Chinese
The Han Chinese, Han people[27][28][29] or simply Han[28][29][30] (/hɑːn/;[31] Mandarin: [xân]; Han characters: 漢人 (Mandarin pinyin: Hànrén; literally "Han people"[32]) or 漢族 (pinyin: Hànzú; literally "Han ethnicity"[33] or "Han ethnic group"[34])) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation.[35] They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese
Han Chinese
are mostly concentrated in Mainland China, where they make up about 92% of the total population.[2] The
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Roman Catholic
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Portuguese Exploration
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries. Portuguese sailors were at the vanguard of European overseas exploration, discovering and mapping the coasts of Africa, Canada, Asia and Brazil, in what became known as the Age of Discovery. Methodical expeditions started in 1419 along West Africa's coast under the sponsorship of prince Henry the Navigator, with Bartolomeu Dias reaching the Cape of Good Hope and entering the Indian Ocean in 1488. Ten years later, in 1498, Vasco da Gama led the first fleet around Africa to India, arriving in Calicut and starting a maritime route from Portugal to India
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Jesuit China Missions
The history of the missions of the Jesuits
Jesuits
in China
China
is part of the history of relations between China
China
and the Western world. The missionary efforts and other work of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, between the 16th and 17th century played a significant role in continuing the transmission of knowledge, science, and culture between China
China
and the West, and influenced Christian culture in Chinese society today. The first attempt by the Jesuits
Jesuits
to reach China
China
was made in 1552 by St. Francis Xavier, Navarrese priest and missionary and founding member of the Society of Jesus. Xavier never reached the mainland, dying after only a year on the Chinese island of Shangchuan
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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Age Of Exploration
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration
Exploration
(approximately from the beginning of the 15th century
15th century
until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization. It also marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe
Europe
of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies. Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were already inhabited
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Francesco Balducci Pegolotti
Francesco Balducci Pegolotti (fl. 1290 - 1347), also Francesco di Balduccio, was a Florentine merchant and politician. Life[edit] His father, Balduccio Pegolotti, represented Florence
Florence
in commercial negotiations with Siena
Siena
in 1311. His brother, Rinieri di Balduccio, was suspected of connivance in the disappearance of a gold shipment in 1332. Francesco Pegolotti himself was a businessman in the service of the Compagnia dei Bardi, and in this capacity we find him at Antwerp
Antwerp
from 1315 (or earlier) to 1317. He was a director of the London
London
office from 1317 to 1321, and is recorded (as Balduch) as having dealt directly with King Edward II. He was in Cyprus
Cyprus
from 1324 to 1327, and again in 1335
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Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpine
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, variously rendered in English as John of Pian de Carpine, John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (ca 1185[1] – August 1, 1252), was a medieval Italian diplomat, archbishop and explorer and one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Mongol Empire. He is the author of the earliest important Western account of northern and central Asia, Rus, and other regions of the Mongol dominion
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Benedykt Polak
Benedict of Poland (Latin: Benedictus Polonus, Polish Benedykt Polak) (ca. 1200 – ca. 1280) was a Polish Franciscan
Franciscan
friar, traveler, explorer, and interpreter. He accompanied Giovanni da Pian del Carpine
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine
in his journey as delegate of Pope
Pope
Innocent IV
Innocent IV
to the Great Khan
Great Khan
Güyük of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1245-1247
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William Of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
(c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.[1] His account is one of the masterpieces of medieval geographical literature comparable to that of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
and Ibn Battuta. Born in Rubrouck, Flanders,[2] he is known also as William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck
Rubrouck
or Willielmus de Rubruquis. He travelled to various places of the Mongol Empire in Asia before his return to Europe.Contents1 Mission 2 Travels 3 Account 4 Editions 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksMission[edit] William accompanied King Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France
on the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
in 1248
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