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Euphrates River
The Euphrates
Euphrates
(/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen); Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Buranuna, Akkadian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu, Arabic: الفرات‎ al-Furāt, Syriac: ̇ܦܪܬ‎ Pǝrāt, Armenian: Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew: פרת‎ Perat, Turkish: Fırat, Kurdish: Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
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Elamite Language
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites. It was used in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
from 2800 to 550 BC. The last written records in Elamite appear around the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
by Cyrus the Great. Elamite is generally thought to have no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Shatt Al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
(Arabic: شط العرب‎, River
River
of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (Persian: اَروَندرود‎, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates
Euphrates
and the Tigris
Tigris
in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf. It varies in width from about 232 metres (761 ft) at Basra
Basra
to 800 metres (2,600 ft) at its mouth
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Lake Assad
Lake Assad
Lake Assad
(Arabic: بحيرة الأسد‎, Buhayrat al-Assad) is a reservoir on the Euphrates
Euphrates
in Raqqa Governorate, Syria. It was created in 1974 when the Tabqa Dam
Tabqa Dam
was closed. Lake Assad
Lake Assad
is Syria’s largest lake with a maximum capacity of 11.7 cubic kilometres (2.8 cu mi) and a maximum surface area of 610 square kilometres (240 sq mi). A vast network of canals uses water from Lake Assad
Lake Assad
to irrigate lands on both sides of the Euphrates. In addition, the lake provides drinking water for the city of Aleppo
Aleppo
and supports a fishing industry
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Al-Qurnah
Al-Qurnah
Al-Qurnah
(Qurna) is a town in southern Iraq
Iraq
about 74 km northwest of Basra, within the town of Nahairat.[2] Qurna (Arabic for connection/joint) is located at the confluence point of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers to form the Shatt al-Arab.[2] Local folklore holds Qurna to have been the site of the Garden of Eden
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Basra Governorate
Basra
Basra
Governorate (Arabic: محافظة البصرة‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or Basra
Basra
Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait
Kuwait
to the south and Iran
Iran
to the east. The capital is the city of Basra
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Sumerian Language
Sumerian (Sumerian: 𒅴𒂠 EME.G̃IR15 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer
Sumer
and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq)
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Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water
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Eastern Turkey
The Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
(Turkish: Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were first defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941. It has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, and lowest population density of all regions of Turkey
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Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
(Persian: شاخاب پارس‬‎, translit. Xalij-e Fârs, lit. 'Gulf of Fars') is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and lies between Iran
Iran
to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
to the southwest.[1] The Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Karasu (Euphrates)
The Karasu (Turkish for 'black water') or Western Euphrates is a long river in eastern Turkey, one of the two sources of the Euphrates. It has a length of about 450 km. To the ancient Greeks the river was known as the Τηλεβόας (Telebóas). Course[edit] The river rises on the Dumlu Dağ in Erzurum Province,[1] and drains the plains around the city of Erzurum. It is joined by the Serçeme River, then flows west through Erzincan Province, turning south, then west and receiving the tributary Tuzla Su. Between Erzincan and Kemah it is joined by the Gönye River and passes through a rocky gorge.[1] Near the small town of Kemaliye it receives its last tributary, the Çaltısuyu, before turning sharply southeast to flow through a deep canyon[1] into the Keban Dam Lake on the Euphrates
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Balikh River
The Balikh River
River
(Arabic: نهر البليخ‎) is a perennial river that originates in the spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus in Syria. It flows due south and joins the Euphrates
Euphrates
at the modern town of Raqqa. After the Khabur River, the Balikh is the largest tributary to the Euphrates
Euphrates
on Syrian soil. It is an important source of water and large parts have recently been subjected to canalization.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Archaeological research in the Balikh River
River
basin 2.2 Excavated archaeological sites in the Balikh River
River
basin3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] The primary source of the Balikh River
River
is the karstic spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus, just south of the Syro-Turkish border
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Khabur (Euphrates)
The Khabur River
River
(Arabic: الخابور‎ al-khābūr, Kurdish: Xabûr‎, Syriac: ܚܒܘܪ‎ ḥābur/khābur, Turkish: Habur) is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates
Euphrates
in Syrian territory. Although the Khabur originates in Turkey, the karstic springs around Ra's al-'Ayn are the river's main source of water. Several important wadis join the Khabur north of Al-Hasakah, together creating what is known as the Khabur Triangle, or Upper Khabur area. From north to south, annual rainfall in the Khabur basin decreases from over 400 mm to less than 200 mm, making the river a vital water source for agriculture throughout history
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