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Euphrates River
The EUPHRATES (/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen ); Sumerian : 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Buranuna, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu, Arabic
Arabic
: الفرات‎ al-Furāt, Syriac : ̇ܦܪܬ‎ Pǝrāt, Armenian : Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew : פרת‎ Perat, Turkish : Fırat, Kurdish : Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
Western Asia
. Together with the Tigris
Tigris
, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(the "Land between the Rivers")
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Murat River
The MURAT RIVER or EASTERN EUPHRATES (Turkish : Murat Nehri, Armenian : Արածանի Aratsani) is the major source of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River. The Ancient Greeks and Romans used to call the river Arsanias (Greek : Ἀρσανίας). It originates near Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
north of Lake Van , in Eastern Turkey, and flows westward for 722 km (449 mi) through mountainous area. Before the construction of the Keban Dam , the Murat River joined the Karasu River or Western Euphrates
Euphrates
10 km (6.2 mi) north of the dam site and 13 km (8.1 mi) north of the town of Keban . In Muş Province
Muş Province
, the river is interrupted by the Alpaslan-1 Dam , which was completed in 2009. The Alpaslan-2 Dam is expected to be completed in 2016 and is located downstream of Alpaslan-1
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Karasu (Euphrates)
The KARASU (Turkish for 'black water') or WESTERN EUPHRATES is a long river in eastern Turkey
Turkey
, one of the two sources of the Euphrates . It has a length of about 450 km. To the ancient Greeks the river was known as the Τηλεβόας (Telebóas). COURSEThe river rises on the Dumlu Dağ in Erzurum Province , and drains the plains around the city of Erzurum
Erzurum
. It is joined by the Serçeme River, then flows west through Erzincan Province , turning south, then west and receiving the tributary Tuzla Su. Between Erzincan and Kemah it is joined by the Gönye River and passes through a rocky gorge. Near the small town of Kemaliye it receives its last tributary, the Çaltısuyu , before turning sharply southeast to flow through a deep canyon into the Keban Dam Lake on the Euphrates
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Keban (District), Elazığ
KEBAN is a town and district of Elazığ Province of Turkey . The mayor is Fethiye Atlı (AKP ). The population is 4857. Keban is at the west of Elazığ Province and 46 km. far away from province center. At the east of Keban, there is Elazığ Province. At west, Arapgir District of Malatya Province, at north there is Çemişgezek District of Tunceli Province, at northwest, Ağın District, at south, Baskil province. There is the second biggest dam of Turkey, Keban Dam . REFERENCES * ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. * ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute
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Shatt Al-Arab
SHATT AL-ARAB ( Arabic
Arabic
: شط العرب‎‎, Bank of the Arabs) or ARVAND RUD (Persian : اَروَندرود‎‎, Swift River) is a river in Basra
Basra
Governorate of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates
Euphrates
and the Tigris
Tigris
in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra
Basra
Governorate of southern Iraq
Iraq
. The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. It varies in width from about 232 metres (761 ft) at Basra
Basra
to 800 metres (2,600 ft) at its mouth
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Lake Habbaniyah
LAKE HABBANIYAH is a muddy lake in Anbar Province , Iraq . In the late 1930s and 1940s Lake Habbaniyah was used by Imperial Airways as a refueling point and hotel for flying boats flying from the United Kingdom to India . Nearby on the banks of the Euphrates had already been established the Royal Air Force airbase of RAF Dhibban , later renamed RAF Habbaniya . Lake Habbaniya Sailing Club, 1954 It was the scene of action during the Rashid Ali rebellion Anglo-Iraqi War when the RAF trainee aircrew and troops stationed there effectively saw off the besieging Iraqi troops and subsequent German aerial attacks. SEE ALSO * 123 Signals Unit RAF * Al Taqaddum - TQ * RAF Habbaniya * Lake Tharthar * Lake Milh * Lake Qadisiyah * Mosul Dam * List of dams and reservoirs in Iraq SEE ALSO * Wildlife of Iraq REFERENCES * ^ Duraid Adnan and Timothy Williams (23 August 2009). "Dancing by the Waves, Iraqis Forget War for a Day". New York Times
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Lake Qadisiyah
A man-made reservoir in Al-Anbar , Iraq
Iraq
, LAKE QADISIYAH (Arabic : بحيرة القادسية‎‎) sits on the north side of the Haditha Dam . Qadisiyah was formed by the damming of the Euphrates River above Haditha, Iraq. It has 100 kilometres of shoreline and provides irrigation water for nearby cultivated fields. On December 3, 2006, it was the site of an emergency landing by an American forces CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter from the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing that resulted in the drowning deaths of four out of its sixteen passengers
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Fallujah
FALLUJAH (Arabic : الفلوجة‎‎, al-Fallūjah Iraqi pronunciation: ) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar , located roughly 69 kilometers (43 mi) west of Baghdad
Baghdad
on the Euphrates . Fallujah
Fallujah
dates from Babylonian times and was host to important Jewish academies for many centuries. The city grew from a small town in 1947 to a population of 275,128 inhabitants in 2011. Within Iraq
Iraq
, it is known as the "city of mosques" for the more than 200 mosques found in the city and the surrounding villages. In January 2014, the city was captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS; sometimes called ISIL) and suffered major population loss. On 23 May 2016, Iraqi forces announced the beginning of their attempt to retake Fallujah
Fallujah
from ISIS . On 26 June 2016 the city was declared fully liberated by the Iraqi army
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Kufa
KUFA (Arabic : الكوفة‎‎ al-Kūfah) is a city in Iraq
Iraq
, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad
Baghdad
, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf . It is located on the banks of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River . The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Presently, Kufa
Kufa
and Najaf are joined into a single urban area that is mostly commonly known to the outside world as 'Najaf'
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Nasiriyah
NASIRIYAH (Arabic : الناصرية‎‎; BGN : An Nāşirīyah; also spelled Nassiriya or Nasiriya) is a city in Iraq
Iraq
. It is situated along the banks of the Euphrates River
Euphrates River
, about 225 miles (370 km) southeast of Baghdad
Baghdad
, near the ruins of the ancient city of Ur . It is the capital of the Dhi Qar Governorate . Its population 2003 was about 560,000, making it the fourth largest city in Iraq. It had a religiously diverse population of Muslims , Mandaeans
Mandaeans
and Jews
Jews
in the early 20th century, but today its inhabitants are predominantly Shia Muslims . Nasiriyah
Nasiriyah
was founded by the Muntafiq tribe in the late 19th century during the Ottoman era. It has since become a major hub for transportation
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Lake Assad
LAKE ASSAD (Arabic : بحيرة الأسد‎‎, Buhayrat al-Assad) is a reservoir on the Euphrates
Euphrates
in Raqqa Governorate
Raqqa Governorate
, Syria
Syria
. It was created in 1974 when the Tabqa Dam
Tabqa Dam
was closed. Lake Assad
Lake Assad
is Syria’s largest lake with a maximum capacity of 11.7 cubic kilometres (2.8 cu mi) and a maximum surface area of 610 square kilometres (240 sq mi). A vast network of canals uses water from Lake Assad
Lake Assad
to irrigate lands on both sides of the Euphrates. In addition, the lake provides drinking water for the city of Aleppo
Aleppo
and supports a fishing industry. The shores of Lake Assad
Lake Assad
have developed into important ecological zones
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Al-Qurnah
AL-QURNAH (QURNA) is a town in southern Iraq
Iraq
about 74 km northwest of Basra
Basra
, within the town of Nahairat. Qurna (Arabic for connection/joint) is located at the confluence point of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers join to form the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
. Local folklore holds Qurna to have been the site of the Garden of Eden . An ancient jujube tree (recently dead) is locally celebrated and shown to the tourists as the actual Tree of Knowledge of the Bible
Bible
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Current conditions * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe town experienced the Battle of Qurna during the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I
World War I
, when the British defeated Ottoman troops who had retreated from Basra
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Basra Governorate
BASRA GOVERNORATE (Arabic : محافظة البصرة‎‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or BASRA PROVINCE) is a governorate in southern Iraq
Iraq
, bordering Kuwait
Kuwait
to the south and Iran
Iran
to the east. The capital is the city of Basra
Basra
. Other districts of Basra
Basra
include Al-Qurnah , Az Zubayr , Al Midaina , Shatt Al Arab
Shatt Al Arab
, Abu Al Khaseeb and Al Faw located on the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Ancient Greek Language
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Old Persian
Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
------------------------- OLD PERSIAN (c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian cuneiform ------------------------- MIDDLE PERSIAN (c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts Manichaean alphabet Avestan alphabet ------------------------- MODERN PERSIAN (from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet The OLD PERSIAN LANGUAGE is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
(the other being Avestan ). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets , and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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