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Ethernet
ETHERNET /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 , and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring , FDDI and ARCNET . The original 10BASE5 Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium , while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches . Over the course of its history, Ethernet
Ethernet
data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s)
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Shared Medium
In telecommunication , a SHARED MEDIUM is a medium or channel of information transfer that serves more than one user at the same time. Most channels only function correctly when one user is transmitting, so a channel access method is always in effect. In circuit switching , each user typically gets a fixed share of the channel capacity. A multiplexing scheme divides up the capacity of the medium. Common multiplexing schemes include time-division multiplexing and frequency-division multiplexing . Channel access methods for circuit switching include time division multiple access , frequency-division multiple access , etc. In packet switching , the sharing is more dynamic — each user takes up little or none of the capacity when idle, and can utilize the entire capacity if transmitting while all other users are idle. Channel access methods for packet switching include carrier sense multiple access , token passing , etc. REFERENCES * ^ "Shared media LAN". PC Mag
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Luminiferous Aether
In the late 19th century, LUMINIFEROUS AETHER, AETHER, or ETHER, meaning light-bearing aether , was the postulated medium for the propagation of light . It was invoked to explain the ability of the apparently wave -based light to propagate through empty space, something that waves should not be able to do. The assumption of a spatial plenum of luminiferous aether, rather than a spatial vacuum, provided the theoretical medium that was required by wave theories of light. The concept was the topic of considerable debate throughout its history, as it required the existence of an invisible and infinite material with no interaction with physical objects. As the nature of light was explored, especially in the 19th century, the physical qualities required of the aether became increasingly contradictory. By the late 1800s, the existence of the aether was being questioned, although there was no physical theory to replace it
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Retransmission (data Networks)
RETRANSMISSION, essentially identical with Automatic repeat request (ARQ), is the resending of packets which have been either damaged or lost. Retransmission is one of the basic mechanisms used by protocols operating over a packet switched computer network to provide reliable communication (such as that provided by a reliable byte stream , for example TCP ). Such networks are usually 'unreliable', meaning they offer no guarantees that they will not delay, damage, or lose packets , or deliver them out of order. Protocols which provide reliable communication over such networks use a combination of acknowledgments (i.e. an explicit receipt from the destination of the data ), retransmission of missing or damaged packets (usually initiated by a time-out ), and checksums to provide that reliability
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PDP-11
The PDP-11
PDP-11
is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. In total, around 600,000 PDP-11s of all models were sold, making it one of DEC's most successful product lines. The PDP-11
PDP-11
is considered by some experts to be the most popular minicomputer ever. The PDP-11
PDP-11
included a number of innovative features in its instruction set and additional general-purpose registers that made it much easier to program than earlier models in the series. Additionally, the innovative Unibus system allowed external devices to be easily interfaced to the system using direct memory access , opening the system to a wide variety of peripherals
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Backward Compatibility
BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system , or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing . Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is sometimes abbreviated to BC, or called DOWNWARD COMPATIBILITY. Modifying a system in a way that does not allow backward compatibility is sometimes called "breaking" backward compatibility. A complementary concept is forward compatibility , which is a design philosophy, usually based on open standards , that strives for methods that will continue to work with newer and future products. Design that is forward-compatible usually has a roadmap for compatibility with future standards and products
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Proprietary Protocol
In telecommunications , a PROPRIETARY PROTOCOL is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual. CONTENTS* 1 Intellectual property rights and enforcement * 1.1 Examples * 2 Effects of incompatibility * 3 Proprietary extensions to open protocols * 4 Reverse engineering * 5 References INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND ENFORCEMENTOwnership by a single organization gives the owner the ability to place restrictions on the use of the protocol and to change the protocol unilaterally. Specifications for proprietary protocols may or may not be published, and implementations are not freely distributed . Proprietors may enforce restrictions through control of the intellectual property rights, for example through enforcement of patent rights, and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret
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Metropolitan Area Network
A METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network
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Laptop
A LAPTOP, often called a NOTEBOOK or "notebook computer", is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell " form factor, an alphanumeric keyboard on the lower part of the "clamshell" and a thin LCD or LED
LED
computer screen on the upper part, which is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use . Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, in playing games, Internet
Internet
surfing, for personal multimedia and general home computer use
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Physical Layer
In the seven-layer OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking , the PHYSICAL LAYER or LAYER 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY . The physical layer consists of the networking hardware transmission technologies of a network . It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes . The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium . The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium
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PS/2 Port
The PS/2 PORT is a 6-pin mini- DIN connector
DIN connector
used for connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system. Its name comes from the IBM
IBM
Personal System/2 series of personal computers , with which it was introduced in 1987. The PS/2 mouse connector generally replaced the older DE-9 RS-232
RS-232
"serial mouse" connector, while the PS/2 keyboard connector replaced the larger 5-pin/180° DIN connector used in the IBM
IBM
PC/AT design. The PS/2 designs on keyboard and mouse interfaces are electrically similar and employ the same communication protocol. However, unlike the otherwise similar Apple Desktop Bus connector used by Apple, a given system's keyboard and mouse port may not be interchangeable since the two devices use a different set of commands
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Butler Lampson
BUTLER W. LAMPSON (born December 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist contributing to the development and implementation of distributed, personal computing . He is a Technical Fellow at Microsoft
Microsoft
and an adjunct professor at MIT
MIT
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Honors and awards * 4 Quotes * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYAfter graduating from the Lawrenceville School (where in 2009 he was awarded the Aldo Leopold Award, also known as the Lawrenceville Medal, Lawrenceville's highest award to alumni), Lampson received his Bachelor\'s degree in Physics from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1964, and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley in 1967. WORKSDuring the 1960s, Lampson and others were part of Project GENIE at UC Berkeley
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Optical Fiber
An OPTICAL FIBER or OPTICAL FIBRE is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica ) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair . Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications , where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss ; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference , a problem from which metal wires suffer excessively. Fibers are also used for illumination , and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope . Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers
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Token Bus
TOKEN BUS is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable . A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit. If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring. Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4. It is mainly used for industrial applications. Token bus was used by General Motors for their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization effort. This is an application of the concepts used in token ring networks. The main difference is that the endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring
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Intel
Coordinates : 37°23′16.54″N 121°57′48.74″W / 37.3879278°N 121.9635389°W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389 Intel
Intel
Corporation Intel
Intel
Corporation's current logo, used since 2006 Intel's headquarters in Santa Clara , California
California
FORMERLY CALLED N M Electronics
Electronics
(1968) TYPE Public TRADED AS * NASDAQ
NASDAQ
: INTC * NASDAQ-100 Component * DJIA Component * S&P 100 Component * S 49 years ago (1968-07-18) FOUNDERS Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
Robert Noyce HEADQUARTERS Santa Clara , California
California
, U.S
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Accton
ACCTON TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (Public, TPE:2345) (Chinese : 智邦科技; pinyin : Zhìbāng Kējì) is a company in Taiwan
Taiwan
that principally engages in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of Ethernet
Ethernet
switches, wireless local area network (WLAN) products and Internet access products. CONTENTS * 1 Products * 2 CSIRO patent issues * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PRODUCTS Accton Etherpocket-SP parallel-port ethernet adaptor (circa 1990, DOS drivers). Supports both 10BASE-2 coax and 10BASE-T twisted pair. Supplementary power is drawn from a PS/2 port passthrough cable. During the year ended December 31, 2009, the Company obtained approximately 69% and 14% of its total revenue from switches and WLAN products, respectively
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