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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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Shared Medium
In telecommunication, a shared medium is a medium or channel of information transfer that serves more than one user at the same time.[1] Most channels only function correctly when one user is transmitting, so a channel access method is always in effect. In circuit switching, each user typically gets a fixed share of the channel capacity. A multiplexing scheme divides up the capacity of the medium. Common multiplexing schemes include time-division multiplexing and frequency-division multiplexing. Channel access methods for circuit switching include time division multiple access, frequency-division multiple access, etc. In packet switching, the sharing is more dynamic — each user takes up little or none of the capacity when idle, and can utilize the entire capacity if transmitting while all other users are idle. Channel access methods for packet switching include carrier sense multiple access, token passing, etc. References[edit]^ "Shared media LAN". PC Mag
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Proprietary Protocol
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.[1]Contents1 Intellectual property rights and enforcement1.1 Examples2 Effects of incompatibility 3 Reverse engineering 4 ReferencesIntellectual property rights and enforcement[edit] Ownership by a single organization gives the owner the ability to place restrictions on the use of the protocol and to change the protocol unilaterally. Specifications for proprietary protocols may or may not be published, and implementations are not freely distributed. Proprietors may enforce restrictions through control of the intellectual property rights, for example through enforcement of patent rights, and by keeping the protocol specification a trade secret
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Metropolitan Area Network
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term MAN is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network. It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks in a metropolitan area through the use of point-to-point connections between them
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Backward Compatibility
Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing. Backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
is sometimes also called downward compatibility.[1] Modifying a system in a way that does not allow backward compatibility is sometimes called "breaking" backward compatibility.[2] A complementary concept is forward compatibility
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Retransmission (data Networks)
Retransmission, essentially identical with Automatic repeat request (ARQ), is the resending of packets which have been either damaged or lost. Retransmission is one of the basic mechanisms used by protocols operating over a packet switched computer network to provide reliable communication (such as that provided by a reliable byte stream, for example TCP). Such networks are usually 'unreliable', meaning they offer no guarantees that they will not delay, damage, or lose packets, or deliver them out of order. Protocols which provide reliable communication over such networks use a combination of acknowledgments (i.e
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Butler Lampson
Lampson may refer to: Places in the United States[edit]Lampson, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community Lampson Field, a public airport in Lake County, CaliforniaOther uses[edit] Lampson (surname) Lampson International, an American crane manufacturerThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lampson. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Charles P. Thacker
Charles
Charles
is a masculine given name from the French form Charles
Charles
of a Germanic name Karl. The original Anglo-Saxon was Ċearl or Ċeorl, as the name of King Cearl of Mercia, that disappeared after the Norman conquest of England. The corresponding Old Norse form is Karl, and the German form is also Karl
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Luminiferous Aether
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether, aether, or ether, meaning light-bearing aether, was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.[1] It was invoked to explain the ability of the apparently wave-based light to propagate through empty space, something that waves should not be able to do. The assumption of a spatial plenum of luminiferous aether, rather than a spatial vacuum, provided the theoretical medium that was required by wave theories of light. The concept was the topic of considerable debate throughout its history, as it required the existence of an invisible and infinite material with no interaction with physical objects. As the nature of light was explored, especially in the 19th century, the physical qualities required of the aether became increasingly contradictory
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PDP-11
The PDP-11
PDP-11
is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. In total, around 600,000 PDP-11s of all models were sold, making it one of DEC's most successful product lines. The PDP-11
PDP-11
is considered by some experts[1][2][3] to be the most popular minicomputer ever. The PDP-11
PDP-11
included a number of innovative features in its instruction set and additional general-purpose registers that made it much easier to program than earlier models in the series. Additionally, the innovative Unibus
Unibus
system allowed external devices to be easily interfaced to the system using direct memory access, opening the system to a wide variety of peripherals
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PS/2 Port
The PS/2 port
PS/2 port
is a 6-pin mini- DIN connector
DIN connector
used for connecting keyboards and mice to a PC compatible
PC compatible
computer system. Its name comes from the IBM
IBM
Personal System/2 series of personal computers, with which it was introduced in 1987. The PS/2 mouse connector generally replaced the older DE-9 RS-232
RS-232
"serial mouse" connector, while the PS/2 keyboard connector replaced the larger 5-pin/180° DIN connector used in the IBM
IBM
PC/AT design. The PS/2 designs on keyboard and mouse interfaces are electrically similar and employ the same communication protocol
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Token Bus
Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable.[1] A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit. If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring.[2] Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4. It is mainly used for industrial applications. Token bus was used by General Motors for their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization effort.[3] This is an application of the concepts used in token ring networks
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Laptop
A laptop, often called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED
LED
computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid. The "clamshell" is opened up to use the computer
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Optical Fiber
An optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.[1] Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables
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Frame (networking)
A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication. In packet switched systems, a frame is a simple container for a single network packet. In other telecommunications systems, a frame is a repeating structure supporting time-division multiplexing. A frame typically includes frame synchronization features consisting of a sequence of bits or symbols that indicate to the receiver, the beginning, and end of the payload data within the stream of symbols or bits it receives. If a receiver is connected to the system in the middle of a frame transmission, it ignores the data until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence.Contents1 Packet switching 2 Time-division multiplex 3 See also 4 ReferencesPacket switching[edit] In the OSI model
OSI model
of computer networking, a frame is the protocol data unit at the data link layer
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Accton
Accton Technology Corporation
Accton Technology Corporation
(Public, TPE:2345) (Chinese: 智邦科技; pinyin: Zhìbāng Kējì) is a company in Taiwan
Taiwan
that principally engages in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of Ethernet
Ethernet
switches, wireless local area network (WLAN) products and Internet access
Internet access
products.Contents1 Products 2 CSIRO patent issues 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksProducts[edit]Accton Etherpocket-SP parallel-port ethernet adaptor (circa 1990, DOS drivers)
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