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Edwin Howard Armstrong
EDWIN HOWARD ARMSTRONG (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor , best known for developing FM (frequency modulation ) radio. He held 42 patents and received numerous awards, including the first Medal of Honor awarded by the Institute of Radio Engineers (now IEEE), the French Legion of Honor , the 1941 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
and the 1942 Edison Medal . He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
and included in the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
's roster of great inventors
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Office Of Alien Property Custodian
The OFFICE OF ALIEN PROPERTY CUSTODIAN was an office within the Government of the United States
United States
during World War I
World War I
and again during World War II
World War II
, serving as a Custodian of Enemy Property to property that belonged to US enemies. WORLD WAR IPresident Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
appointed A. Mitchell Palmer
A. Mitchell Palmer
, a political ally and former Congressman, Alien Property Custodian in October 1917. Palmer held the position from October 22, 1917, until March 4, 1919. A wartime agency, the Custodian had responsibility for the seizure, administration, and sometimes the sale of enemy property in the United States
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Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company
The WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY and later renamed WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION by its founder George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
(1846–1914). George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company . The corporation purchased the CBS
CBS
broadcasting company in 1995 and became the CBS
CBS
CORPORATION in 1997
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David Sarnoff
DAVID SARNOFF (Belarusian : Даві́д Сарно́ў, Russian : Дави́д Сарно́в, February 27, 1891 – December 12, 1971) was an American businessman and pioneer of American radio and television . Throughout most of his career he led the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in various capacities from shortly after its founding in 1919 until his retirement in 1970. He ruled over an ever-growing telecommunications and consumer electronics empire that included both RCA
RCA
and NBC, and became one of the largest companies in the world. Named a Reserve Brigadier General of the Signal Corps in 1945, Sarnoff thereafter was widely known as "The General". Sarnoff is credited with Sarnoff's law, which states that the value of a broadcast network is proportional to the number of viewers
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John Renshaw Carson
JOHN RENSHAW CARSON (June 28, 1886 – October 31, 1940) was a noted transmission theorist for early communications systems. He invented single-sideband modulation . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Patent * 3 Selected works * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources BIOGRAPHY John Renshaw Carson (speculated by Marc Seifer as 9th from left, earlier thought to be Nikola Tesla ), along with some of the greatest scientists at that time, including Albert Einstein (8th from left), taking an inspection tour of the New Brunswick Marconi Station . Carson was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania , graduated from Princeton University in 1907 with a Bachelor of Science degree, and attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1907–1908 before returning to Princeton to receive his electrical engineering degree in 1909 and a Master of Science degree in 1912
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Electronic Oscillator
An ELECTRONIC OSCILLATOR is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave . Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current (AC) signal. They are widely used in many electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters , clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks , and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games . Oscillators are often characterized by the frequency of their output signal: * A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers , to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator. * An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz
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Oscillograph
An OSCILLOSCOPE, previously called an OSCILLOGRAPH, and informally known as a SCOPE or O-SCOPE, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages , usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. Other signals (such as sound or vibration) can be converted to voltages and displayed. Oscilloscopes are used to observe the change of an electrical signal over time, such that voltage and time describe a shape which is continuously graphed against a calibrated scale. The observed waveform can be analyzed for such properties as amplitude , frequency , rise time , time interval, distortion and others. Modern digital instruments may calculate and display these properties directly. Originally, calculation of these values required manually measuring the waveform against the scales built into the screen of the instrument
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Mathematical Physics
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics . The Journal of Mathematical Physics
Physics
defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories". It is a branch of applied mathematics , but deals with physical problems. CONTENTS* 1 Scope * 1.1 Classical mechanics
Classical mechanics
* 1.2 Partial differential equations
Partial differential equations
* 1.3 Quantum theory * 1.4 Relativity and Quantum Relativistic Theories * 1.5 Statistical mechanics * 2 Usage * 2.1 Mathematical vs
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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Chelsea, Manhattan
CHELSEA is a neighborhood on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan
Manhattan
in New York City
City
. The district's boundaries are roughly 14th Street to the south and the Hudson River and West Street to the west, with the northern boundary variously described as 30th Street or 34th Street , and the eastern boundary as either Sixth Avenue or Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
. To the north of Chelsea is the neighborhood of Hell\'s Kitchen , as well as the Hudson Yards ; to the northeast is the Garment District ; to the east are NoMad
NoMad
and the Flatiron District ; to the southwest is the Meatpacking District ; and to the south and southeast are the West Village and the remainder of Greenwich Village . Chelsea is divided between Manhattan
Manhattan
Community Board 4 and Manhattan Community Board 5
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Single-sideband Modulation
In radio communications, SINGLE-SIDEBAND MODULATION (SSB) or SINGLE-SIDEBAND SUPPRESSED-CARRIER MODULATION (SSB-SC) is a type of modulation , used to transmit information, an audio signal , by radio waves . It is a refinement of amplitude modulation which uses transmitter power and bandwidth more efficiently. Amplitude modulation produces an output signal that has twice the bandwidth of the original baseband signal. Single-sideband modulation
Single-sideband modulation
avoids this bandwidth doubling, and the power wasted on a carrier, at the cost of increased device complexity and more difficult tuning at the receiver
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Proceedings Of The IRE
The PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The journal focuses on electrical engineering and computer science . According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 9.237, ranking it fifth in the category "Engineering, Electrical & Electronic." CONTENTS * 1 History of the Proceedings * 2 Abstracting and indexing * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORY OF THE PROCEEDINGSThe journal was established in 1909, known as the Proceedings of the Wireless Institute. Six issues were published under this banner by Greenleaf Pickard and Alfred Goldsmith . Then in 1911 a merger between the Wireless Institute (New York) and the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers (Boston) resulted in a society named the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)
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Great Depression
The GREAT DEPRESSION was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, originating in the United States . The timing of the Great Depression
Great Depression
varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until 1941. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression
Great Depression
is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday ). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession
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Proceedings Of The IEEE
The PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The journal focuses on electrical engineering and computer science . According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 9.237, ranking it fifth in the category "Engineering, Electrical & Electronic." CONTENTS * 1 History of the Proceedings * 2 Abstracting and indexing * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORY OF THE PROCEEDINGSThe journal was established in 1909, known as the Proceedings of the Wireless Institute. Six issues were published under this banner by Greenleaf Pickard and Alfred Goldsmith . Then in 1911 a merger between the Wireless Institute (New York) and the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers (Boston) resulted in a society named the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)
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Crosby System
The CROSBY SYSTEM was an FM stereophonic broadcasting standard developed by Murray G. Crosby . In the United States, it competed with, and ultimately lost to, the Zenith/GE system, which the FCC chose as the standard in 1961. While both systems used multiplexing to transmit the L-R stereo signal, the Crosby system used a frequency-modulated 50 kHz subcarrier, whereas the competing Zenith/GE system used an amplitude-modulated 38 kHz subcarrier. As FM is less susceptible to interference and noise than AM, the Crosby system had better frequency response and less noise of the two systems especially under weak signal conditions. However, the Crosby system was incompatible with existing subsidiary communications authorization (SCA) services which used subcarrier frequencies including 41 and 67 kHz. These SCA services were used by many FM stations since the mid-1950s for subscription-based "storecasting" to raise revenue and for other non-broadcast purposes
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Signal To Noise Ratio
SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise . S/N ratio is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels . A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than noise. While SNR is commonly quoted for electrical signals, it can be applied to any form of signal (such as isotope levels in an ice core or biochemical signaling between cells). The signal-to-noise ratio, the bandwidth , and the channel capacity of a communication channel are connected by the Shannon–Hartley theorem . Signal-to-noise ratio
Signal-to-noise ratio
is sometimes used metaphorically to refer to the ratio of useful information to false or irrelevant data in a conversation or exchange
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