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Drug Nome
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.[2][3] In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance of known structure, other than a nutrient of an essential dietary ingredient, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.[4] A pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[2] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[5] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[6] Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, t
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Drug (other)
A drug is any chemical substance other than a food or device that affects the function of living things. Drug(s) or D.R.U.G.S. may also refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Places 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit]DRUGS, a funk musical group founded by Michael "Clip" Payne D.R.U.G.S. (Death and Reincarnation Under God's Supervision), 2012 mixtape by Flatbush Zombies Destroy Rebuild Until God Shows, an American post-hardcore band previously known as D.R.U.G.S.D.R.U.G.S., 2011 album by Destroy Rebuild Until God ShowsD.R.U.G.S
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Biopharmaceutics Classification System
The Biopharmaceutics Classification System is a system to differentiate the drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability.[1] This system restricts the prediction using the parameters solubility and intestinal permeability. The solubility classification is based on a United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) aperture. The intestinal permeability classification is based on a comparison to the intravenous injection
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Organic Synthesis
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.[1] Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry
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Chronic (medicine)
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS. An illness which is lifelong because it ends in death is a terminal illness. In medicine, a chronic condition can be distinguished from one that is acute (recent in onset); additionally, a recurrent condition can relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between. The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are distinguished by their non-infectious causes
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Drug Class
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.[1][2] In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis)
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Chemical Structure
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid
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Mechanism Of Action
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.[1] A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor.[2] Receptor sites have specific affinities for drugs based on the chemical structure of the drug, as well as the specific action that occurs there. Drugs that do not bind to receptors produce their corresponding therapeutic effect by simply interacting with chemical or physical properties in the body
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Biological Target
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function. Examples of common classes of biological targets are proteins and nucleic acids. The definition is context-dependent, and can refer to the biological target of a pharmacologically active drug compound, the receptor target of a hormone (like insulin), or some other target of an external stimulus
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Mode Of Action
A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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ATC Code
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Absorption (pharmacokinetics)
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream. Absorption involves several phases. First, the drug needs to be introduced via some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal, etc.) and in a specific dosage form such as a tablet, capsule, solution and so on. In other situations, such as intravenous therapy, intramuscular injection, enteral nutrition and others, absorption is even more straightforward and there is less variability in absorption and bioavailability is often near 100%. It is considered that intravascular administration (e.g. IV) does not involve absorption, and there is no loss of drug.[1] The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration.[2] Absorption is a primary focus in drug development and medicinal chemistry, since the drug must be absorbed before any medicinal effects can take place
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Well-being
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group. A high level of well-being means in some sense the individual or group's condition is positive.Contents1 Multiple factors 2 Approaches 3 Models3.1 Diener: tripartite model of subjective well-being 3.2 Carol Ryff; Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being 3.3 Corey Keyes: flourishing 3.4 Seligman: positive psychology3.4.1 Three paths to happiness 3.4.2 PERMA-theory4 Contributing factors and research-findings 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksMultiple factors[edit] According to Naci and Ioannidis,Wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical, mental, and social well-being that extend beyond the traditional definition of health
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Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish—and it contains the majority of the nervous system. Many consider the retina[2] and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II),[3][4] as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium[5] as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia. As such, the olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact with the environment, which opens up for therapeutic treatments. [5] The CNS is contained within the dorsal body cavity, with the brain housed in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal canal
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Perception
Perception
Perception
(from the Latin
Latin
perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.[1] All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, wh
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