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Directoire
The Directory was a five-member committee which governed France
France
from 1795, when it replaced the Committee
Committee
of Public Safety. On 9 November 1799, it was overthrown by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire and replaced by the French Consulate. It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution. The Directory was continually at war with foreign coalitions which at different times included Britain, Austria, Prussia, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It annexed Belgium
Belgium
and the left bank of the Rhine, while Bonaparte conquered a large part of Italy. The Directory established 196 short-lived sister republics modelled after France, in Italy, Switzerland
Switzerland
and the Netherlands
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Style (manner Of Address)
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.[1][2] A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage
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France In The Twentieth Century
The History of France
France
from 1914 to the present includes:the later years of the Third Republic (1871–1941) World War I
World War I
(1914–18)
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Early Modern France
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(a Capetian cadet branch). This corresponds to the so-called Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
("old rule")
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Excellency
Excellency
Excellency
is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder usually[citation needed] retains the right to that courtesy throughout his or her lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, and is held only for the duration of that office.[1] Generally people addressed as Excellency
Excellency
are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, and others holding equivalent rank (e.g., heads of international organizations).[citation needed] It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles (such as Mr. President, and so on), both in speech and in writing
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First French Empire
French Revolutionary Wars •  Constitution adopted 18 May 1804 •  Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon
I 2 December 1804 •  Treaty of Tilsit 7 July 1807 •  Invasion of Russia 24 June 1812 •  Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April 1814 •  Hundred Days 20 March – 7 July 1815Area •  1812 [4] 860,000 km2 (330,000 sq mi)Population •  1812 est. 44,000,000 Currency French francPreceded by Succeeded byFrench First RepublicKingdom of HollandLigur
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Bourbon Restoration
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of executed Louis XVI of France came to power and reigned in highly conservative fashion, and exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up all the territorial gains made since 1789. King Louis XVI of the House of Bourbon had been overthrown and executed during the French Revolution (1789–1799), which in turn was followed by Napoleon as ruler of France. A coalition of European powers defeated Napoleon in the War of the Sixth Coalition, ended the First Empire in 1814, and restored the monarchy to the brothers of Louis XVI. The Bourbon Restoration lasted from (about) 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830
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July Monarchy
The July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(French: Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France
France
under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X
Charles X
and the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe, a member of the more liberal Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, proclaimed himself as Roi des Français ("King of the French") rather than "King of France", emphasizing the popular origins of his reign. The king promised to follow the "juste milieu", or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of either the conservative supporters of Charles X
Charles X
and radicals on the left. The July Monarchy
July Monarchy
was dominated by wealthy bourgeoisie and numerous former Napoleonic officials
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French Second Republic
The French Second Republic
Republic
was a short-lived republican government of France
France
between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire. It officially adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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French Third Republic
The French Third Republic
French Third Republic
(French: La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France
France
from 1870, when the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
collapsed, until 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
led to the formation of the Vichy
Vichy
government in France. It came to an end on 10 July 1940. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in 1870
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Free France
Free France
Free France
and its Free French Forces (French: France
France
Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War
Second World War
and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers
Axis powers
as one of the Allies after the fall of France
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France In The Middle Ages
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the
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Vichy France
Vichy France (French: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It represented the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre) in the southern part of metropolitan France and the French colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of all of France except Alsace-Lorraine, the German militarily occupied northern France. While Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town of Vichy, 360 km (220 mi) to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. Petain's regime remained in Vichy as the nominal government of France, albeit one that clearly operated as a de facto client state of Nazi Germany from November 1942 onward
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Provisional Government Of The French Republic
The Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
(gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France
Free France
between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France
France
after Operations Overlord and Dragoon, and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic. Its establishment marked the official restoration and re-establishment of a provisional French Republic, assuring continuity with the defunct French Third Republic. It succeeded the French Committee of National Liberation
French Committee of National Liberation
(CFLN), which had been the provisional government of France
France
in the overseas territories and metropolitan parts of the country (Algeria and Corsica) that had been liberated by the Free French
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French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic
was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. France
France
adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France
France
and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration
European integration
which changed the continent permanently. The greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development
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