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Digital Radio
DIGITAL RADIO is the use of digital technology to transmit and/or receive across the radio spectrum . They may refer to digital transmission by radio waves , including digital broadcasting , and especially to Digital audio radio services . The term is also applied to radio equipment using digital electronics to process analog radio signals
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DECT
DIGITAL ENHANCED CORDLESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications), usually known by the acronym DECT, is a standard primarily used for creating cordless telephone systems. It originated in Europe, where it is the universal standard, replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as 900 MHz CT1 and CT2 . Beyond Europe, it has been adopted by Australia
Australia
, and most countries in Asia
Asia
and South America
South America
. North American adoption was delayed by United States
United States
radio frequency regulations. This forced development of a variation of DECT, called DECT 6.0, using a slightly different frequency range which makes these units incompatible with systems intended for use in other areas, even from the same manufacturer
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Wireless Computer Network
A WIRELESS NETWORK is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes . Wireless
Wireless
networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless
Wireless
telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using radio communication . This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure. Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless sensor networks, satellite communication networks, and terrestrial microwave networks
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Deep Space Network
The NASA
NASA
DEEP SPACE NETWORK (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain
Spain
(Madrid), and Australia
Australia
(Canberra), that supports NASA\'s interplanetary spacecraft missions. It also performs radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe , and supports selected Earth
Earth
-orbiting missions. DSN is part of the NASA
NASA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL). Similar networks are run by Europe , Russia , China , India , and Japan
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Dedicated Short-range Communications
DEDICATED SHORT-RANGE COMMUNICATIONS are one-way or two-way short-range to medium-range wireless communication channels specifically designed for automotive use and a corresponding set of protocols and standards. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Standardization * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIn October 1999, the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 75 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band to be used by intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In August 2008, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute ( ETSI ) allocated 30 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band for ITS. By 2003, it was used in Europe and Japan in electronic toll collection . DSRC systems in Europe, Japan and U.S. are not compatible and include some very significant variations (5.8 GHz, 5.9 GHz or even infrared, different baud rates, and different protocols)
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2G
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology . Second-generation 2G cellular networks were commercially launched on the GSM
GSM
standard in Finland
Finland
by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj ) in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater wireless penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it
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Information
INFORMATION is any entity or form that resolves uncertainty or provides the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge , as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer. Information
Information
is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation . That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message
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Radio Spectrum
The RADIO SPECTRUM is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz to 3000 GHz (3 THz ). Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves , are extremely widely used in modern technology, particularly in telecommunication . To prevent interference between different users, the generation and transmission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU). Different parts of the radio spectrum are allocated by the ITU for different radio transmission technologies and applications; some 40 radiocommunication services are defined in the ITU's Radio
Radio
Regulations (RR). In some cases, parts of the radio spectrum are sold or licensed to operators of private radio transmission services (for example, cellular telephone operators or broadcast television stations)
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Voyager Program
The VOYAGER PROGRAM is a continuing American scientific program that employs two robotic probes , Voyager 1 and Voyager 2
Voyager 2
, to study the outer Solar System
Solar System
. They were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter
Jupiter
, Saturn
Saturn
, Uranus
Uranus
, and Neptune
Neptune
, and are now exploring the outer boundary of the heliosphere in interstellar space . Although their original mission was to study only the planetary systems of Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn, Voyager 2
Voyager 2
continued on to Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune, and both Voyagers are now tasked with exploring interstellar space
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Statistical Multiplexing
STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXING is a type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). In statistical multiplexing , a communication channel is divided into an arbitrary number of variable bitrate digital channels or data streams. The link sharing is adapted to the instantaneous traffic demands of the data streams that are transferred over each channel. This is an alternative to creating a fixed sharing of a link, such as in general time division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM). When performed correctly, statistical multiplexing can provide a link utilization improvement, called the statistical multiplexing gain. Statistical multiplexing
Statistical multiplexing
is facilitated through PACKET MODE or PACKET-ORIENTED communication, which among others is utilized in packet switched computer networks
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Internet Radio
INTERNET RADIO (also WEB RADIO, NET RADIO, STREAMING RADIO, E-RADIO, IP RADIO, ONLINE RADIO, WEBCASTING) is an audio service transmitted via the Internet . Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. Internet radio involves streaming media , presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that typically cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting , which involves downloading rather than streaming. Internet radio services offer news , sports , talk , and various genres of music —every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations
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Sideband
In radio communications, a SIDEBAND is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency , containing power as a result of the modulation process. The sidebands consist of all the Fourier components of the modulated signal except the carrier. All forms of modulation produce sidebands. Amplitude modulation of a carrier signal normally results in two mirror-image sidebands. The signal components above the carrier frequency constitute the UPPER SIDEBAND (USB), and those below the carrier frequency constitute the LOWER SIDEBAND (LSB). For example, if a 900 kHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 1 kHz audio signal, there will be components at 899 kHz and 901 kHz as well as 900 kHz in the generated Radio
Radio
Frequency spectrum; so an audio bandwidth of (say) 7 kHz will require a radio spectrum bandwidth of 14 kHz
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Denmark
DENMARK (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen ); Danish : Danmark, pronounced ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF DENMARK, is a Nordic country and a sovereign state . The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway
Norway
, and bordered to the south by Germany
Germany
. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
: the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland
Greenland
. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland
Jutland
, and an archipelago of 443 named islands , with the largest being Zealand
Zealand
, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island
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Interference (communication)
In communications and electronics , especially in telecommunications , INTERFERENCE is anything which modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver. The term typically refers to the addition of unwanted signals to a useful signal. Common examples are: * Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI) * Co-channel interference (CCI), also known as crosstalk * Adjacent-channel interference (ACI) * Intersymbol interference (ISI) * Inter-carrier interference (ICI), caused by doppler shift in OFDM modulation (multitone modulation). * Common-mode interference (CMI) * Conducted interference Interference is typically but not always distinguished from noise , for example white thermal noise . Radio resource management aims at reducing and controlling the co-channel and adjacent-channel interference
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UK
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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