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Diagram
A diagram is a symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. Diagrams have been used since ancient times, but became more prevalent during the Enlightenment.[1] Sometimes, the technique uses a three-dimensional visualization which is then projected onto a two-dimensional surface. The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.Contents1 Overview 2 Main diagram types 3 Specific diagram types 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingOverview[edit] The term "diagram" in its commonly used sense can have a general or specific meaning:visual information device : Like the term "illustration", "diagram" is used as a collective term standing for the whole class of technical genres, including graphs, technical drawings and tables.[2] specific kind of visual display : This is the genre that shows qualitative data with shapes that are connected by lines, arrows, or other visual links.In science the term is used in both ways
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Content Format
A content format is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information. Content formats are used in recording and transmission to prepare data for observation or interpretation.[1][2] This includes both analog and digitized content. Content formats may be recorded and read by either natural or manufactured tools and mechanisms. In addition to converting data to information, a content format may include the encryption and/or scrambling of that information.[3] Multiple content formats may be contained within a single section of a storage medium (e.g. track, disk sector, computer file, document, page, column) or transmitted via a single channel (e.g. wire, carrier wave) of a transmission medium. With multimedia, multiple tracks containing multiple content formats are presented simultaneously. Content formats may either be recorded in secondary signal processing methods such as a software container format (e.g
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Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application
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Three-dimensional
Three-dimensional space
Three-dimensional space
(also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3. This serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe (that is, the spatial part, without considering time) in which all known matter exists. However, this space is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds
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Population Density
Population
Population
density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term.[1]Contents1 Biological population densities1.1 By political boundaries 1.2 Other methods of measurement2 See also2.1 Lists of entities by population density3 References 4 External linksBiological population densities[edit] Population
Population
density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate.[1] Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect
Allee effect
after the scientist who identified it
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Histogram
A histogram is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson.[1] It is a kind of bar graph. To construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of values—that is, divide the entire range of values into a series of intervals—and then count how many values fall into each interval. The bins are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The bins (intervals) must be adjacent, and are often (but are not required to be) of equal size.[2] If the bins are of equal size, a rectangle is erected over the bin with height proportional to the frequency—the number of cases in each bin. A histogram may also be normalized to display "relative" frequencies
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Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output. Otherwise, a function is said to be a discontinuous function. A continuous function with a continuous inverse function is called a homeomorphism. Continuity of functions is one of the core concepts of topology, which is treated in full generality below. The introductory portion of this article focuses on the special case where the inputs and outputs of functions are real numbers. A stronger form of continuity is uniform continuity. In addition, this article discusses the definition for the more general case of functions between two metric spaces. In order theory, especially in domain theory, one considers a notion of continuity known as Scott continuity. Other forms of continuity do exist but they are not discussed in this article. As an example, consider the function h(t), which describes the height of a growing flower at time t
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Discrete Mathematics (journal)
Discrete Mathematics
Mathematics
is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the broad area of discrete mathematics, combinatorics, graph theory, and their applications. It was established in 1971 and is published by North-Holland Publishing Company. It publishes both short notes, full length contributions, as well as survey articles. In addition, the journal publishes a number of special issues each year dedicated to a particular topic. Although originally it published articles in French and German, it now allows only English language
English language
articles. The editor-in-chief is Douglas West (University of Illinois, Urbana).Contents1 History 2 Abstracting and indexing 3 Notable publications 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The journal was established in 1971
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Network Diagram
Graph drawing
Graph drawing
is an area of mathematics and computer science combining methods from geometric graph theory and information visualization to derive two-dimensional depictions of graphs arising from applications such as social network analysis, cartography, linguistics, and bioinformatics.[1] A drawing of a graph or network diagram is a pictorial representation of the vertices and edges of a graph. This drawing should not be confused with the graph itself: very different layouts can correspond to the same graph.[2] In the abstract, all that matters is which pairs of vertices are connected by edges
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Tree Structure
A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom. A tree structure is conceptual, and appears in several forms. For a discussion of tree structures in specific fields, see Tree
Tree
(data structure) for computer science: insofar as it relates to graph theory, see tree (graph theory), or also tree (set theory)
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Arrow
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is shot with a bow, and usually consists of a long straight shaft with a weighty and usually pointed arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the rear end. The use of bows and arrows by humans predates recorded history and is common to most cultures. One who makes arrows is a fletcher.[1]Contents1 History 2 Size2.1 Shaft2.1.1 GPI rating 2.1.2 Footed arrows2.2 Arrowhead 2.3 Fletchings 2.4 Nocks3 Finishes and Cresting 4 See also 5 Symbolism 6 Notes 7 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of archery The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow (c.f. atlatl), dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave, current South Africa.[2] The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago; it is based on pinewood arrows found in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg
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Quantitative Data
Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.[1] Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the best known classification with four levels, or scales, of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.[1][2] This framework of distinguishing levels of measurement originated in psychology and is widely criticized by scholars in other disciplines.[3] Other classifications include those by Mosteller and Tukey,[4] and by Chrisman.[5]Contents1 Stevens's typology1.1 Overview1.1.1 Comparison1.2 Nominal level1.2.1 Mathematical operations 1.2.2 Central tendency<
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Literal Translation
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole. In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.[1] In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation — "paraphrase." When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,[2] for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible. The concept of literal translation may be viewed as an oxymoron (contradiction in terms), given that literal denotes something existing without interpretation, where
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Sketch (drawing)
A sketch (ultimately from Greek σχέδιος – schedios, "done extempore"[1][2][3]) is a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not usually intended as a finished work.[4] A sketch may serve a number of purposes: it might record something that the artist sees, it might record or develop an idea for later use or it might be used as a quick way of graphically demonstrating an image, idea or principle. Sketches can be made in any drawing medium. The term is most often applied to graphic work executed in a dry medium such as silverpoint, graphite, pencil, charcoal or pastel. But it may also apply to drawings executed in pen and ink, ballpoint pen, water colour and oil paint. The latter two are generally referred to as "water colour sketches" and "oil sketches"
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Architect
An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.[1] Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e., chief builder.[2] Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture
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