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Demyelinating Disease
A DEMYELINATING DISEASE is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This damage impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves. In turn, the reduction in conduction ability causes deficiency in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved. Some demyelinating diseases are caused by genetics , some by infectious agents, some by autoimmune reactions, and some by unknown factors. Organophosphates , a class of chemicals which are the active ingredients in commercial insecticides such as sheep dip , weed-killers , and flea treatment preparations for pets, etc., will also demyelinate nerves. Neuroleptics can also cause demyelination. Demyelinating diseases are traditionally classified in two kinds: DEMYELINATING MYELINOCLASTIC DISEASES and DEMYELINATING LEUKODYSTROPHIC DISEASES
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Radiology
RADIOLOGY is a specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray
X-ray
radiography , ultrasound , computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive ) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical images is usually carried out by the Radiographer , often known as a Radiologic Technologist. Depending on location, the Diagnostic Radiologist, or Reporting Radiographer , then interprets or "reads" the images and produces a report of their findings and impression or diagnosis
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Medical Imaging
MEDICAL IMAGING is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology ). Medical imaging
Medical imaging
seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease . Medical imaging
Medical imaging
also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons, such procedures are usually considered part of pathology instead of medical imaging
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation . This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF
UHF
television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus . Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics , crystals , and non-crystalline materials through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy . NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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Evoked Potential
An EVOKED POTENTIAL or EVOKED RESPONSE is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus , as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiologic recording method. Such potentials are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring . Evoked potential amplitudes tend to be low, ranging from less than a microvolt to several microvolts, compared to tens of microvolts for EEG, millivolts for EMG, and often close to a volt for ECG . To resolve these low-amplitude potentials against the background of ongoing EEG, ECG, EMG, and other biological signals and ambient noise, signal averaging is usually required. The signal is time-locked to the stimulus and most of the noise occurs randomly, allowing the noise to be averaged out with averaging of repeated responses
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Electrical Potential
An ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (also called the electric field potential or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration. Typically, the reference point is Earth or a point at Infinity, although any point beyond the influence of the electric field charge can be used. According to classical electrostatics , electric potential is a scalar quantity denoted by V, equal to the electric potential energy of any charged particle at any location (measured in joules ) divided by the charge of that particle (measured in coulombs ). By dividing out the charge on the particle a remainder is obtained that is a property of the electric field itself. This value can be calculated in either a static (time-invariant) or a dynamic (varying with time) electric field at a specific time in units of joules per coulomb (J C−1), or volts (V)
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Paraparesis
PARAPLEGIA is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek παραπληγίη "half-striking". It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition that affects the neural (brain) elements of the spinal canal. The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. Common victims of this impairment are veterans or members of the armed forces. If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia . SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA is a form of paraplegia defined by spasticity of the affected muscles, rather than flaccid paralysis . The American Spinal Injury Association classifies spinal cord injury severity. ASIA A being the complete loss of sensory function and motor skills below the injury
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Paresthesias
PARESTHESIA is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause. The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic, and may have any of dozens of possible underlying causes. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "PINS AND NEEDLES" or of a limb "FALLING ASLEEP". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication , the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin. CONTENTS* 1 Causes * 1.1 Transient * 1.2 Chronic * 1.3 Acroparesthesia * 1.4 Dentistry * 1.5 Other * 2 Diagnostic approach * 3 Treatment * 4 Etymology * 5 References * 6 External links CAUSESTRANSIENTParesthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The briefest, electric shock type of paresthesia can be caused by tweaking the ulnar nerve near the elbow
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Clonus
CLONUS (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic , muscular contractions and relaxations. Clonus is a sign of certain neurological conditions, particularly associated with upper motor neuron lesions involving descending motor pathways, and in many cases is, accompanied by spasticity (another form of hyperexcitability). Unlike small, spontaneous twitches known as fasciculations (usually caused by lower motor neuron pathology), clonus causes large motions that are usually initiated by a reflex . Studies have shown clonus beat frequency to range from three to eight Hz on average, and may last a few seconds to several minutes depending on the patient’s condition
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Dysarthria
DYSARTHRIA is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes . In other words, it is a condition in which problems effectively occur with the muscles that help produce speech, often making it very difficult to pronounce words. It is unrelated to problems with understanding language (that is aphasia ), although a person can have both. Any of the speech subsystems (respiration , phonation , resonance , prosody , and articulation ) can be affected, leading to impairments in intelligibility, audibility, naturalness, and efficiency of vocal communication. Dysarthria that has progressed to a total loss of speech is referred to as ANARTHRIA. Neurological injury due to damage in the central or peripheral nervous system may result in weakness, paralysis, or a lack of coordination of the motor-speech system, producing dysarthria
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Hemiparesis
HEMIPARESIS, or unilateral paresis , is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half"). HEMIPLEGIA is, in its most severe form, complete paralysis of half of the body. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia can be caused by different medical conditions, including congenital causes, trauma, tumors, or stroke. CONTENTS* 1 Signs and symptoms * 1.1 Loss of motor skills * 1.2 "Pusher syndrome" * 1.3 Classification of pusher syndrome * 2 Causes * 2.1 Common * 3 Mechanism * 4 Diagnosis * 4.1 Assessment tools * 5 Treatment * 5.1 Medication * 5.2 Surgery * 5.3 Rehabilitation * 5.4 Physical therapy
Physical therapy
* 5.5 Occupational therapy
Occupational therapy
* 6 Prognosis * 7 Popular culture * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSDepending on the type of hemiparesis diagnosed, different bodily functions can be affected
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Anaesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry ), ANESTHESIA or ANAESTHESIA is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain ), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness . A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being ANESTHETIZED. Anesthesia
Anesthesia
enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient
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Electroencephalography
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain . It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp , although invasive electrodes are sometimes used such as in electrocorticography . EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current within the neurons of the brain . In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a period of time, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related potentials or on the spectral content of EEG. The former investigates potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or button press. The latter analyses the type of neural oscillations (popularly called "brain waves") that can be observed in EEG signals in the frequency domain
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Electromyography
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles . EMG is performed using an instrument called an ELECTROMYOGRAPH to produce a record called an ELECTROMYOGRAM. An electromyograph detects the electric potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, or recruitment order, or to analyze the biomechanics of human or animal movement. An illustration depicting an electromyogram procedure
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Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery
FLUID-ATTENUATED INVERSION RECOVERY (FLAIR) is an MRI sequence with an inversion recovery set to null fluids. For example, it can be used in brain imaging to suppress cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) effects on the image, so as to bring out the periventricular hyperintense lesions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques. It was invented by Dr. Graeme Bydder . FLAIR can be used with both three-dimensional imaging (3D FLAIR) or two dimensional imaging (2D FLAIR). CONTENTS * 1 Technique * 2 Clinical applications * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading TECHNIQUEBy carefully choosing the inversion time (TI), the signal from any particular tissue can be nulled. The appropriate TI depends on the tissue via the formula: TI = ln ( 2 ) T 1 , {displaystyle {textrm {TI}}=ln(2)cdot T_{1},,} in other words, one should typically use a TI of around 70% of the T1 value
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Pulse Sequence
In MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI), A SEQUENCE is a particular setting of pulse sequences and pulsed field gradients , resulting in a particular image appearance. CONTENTS * 1 Overview table * 2 Diffusion MRI * 3 Steady-state free precession imaging * 4 Functional MRI * 5 Phase contrast MRI * 6 Magnetization transfer MRI * 7 Proton density weighted * 8 Inversion recovery sequences * 8.1 Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) * 8.2 Turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) * 9 Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) * 10 In-phase and out-of-phase * 11 Fast spin * 12 Fat suppression * 13 Neuromelanin imaging * 14 Uncommon and experimental sequences * 14.1 T1 rho * 14.2 Others * 15 References OVERVIEW TABLEedit This table does not include uncommon and experimental sequences . GROUP SEQUENCE ABBR
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