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Demyelinating Disease
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.[1] This damage impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves. In turn, the reduction in conduction ability causes deficiency in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved. Some demyelinating diseases are caused by genetics, some by infectious agents, some by autoimmune reactions, and some by unknown factors. Organophosphates, a class of chemicals which are the active ingredients in commercial insecticides such as sheep dip, weed-killers, and flea treatment preparations for pets, etc., will also demyelinate nerves. Neuroleptics
Neuroleptics
can also cause demyelination.[2] Demyelinating diseases are traditionally classified in two kinds: demyelinating myelinoclastic diseases and demyelinating leukodystrophic diseases
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Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry
(IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.[1] IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). Albert Coons
Albert Coons
conceptualized and first implemented the procedure in 1941.[2] Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors
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Electrical Potential
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration. Typically, the reference point is Earth or a point at Infinity, although any point beyond the influence of the electric field charge can be used. According to classical electrostatics, electric potential is a scalar quantity denoted by V, equal to the electric potential energy of any charged particle at any location (measured in joules) divided by the charge of that particle (measured in coulombs). By dividing out the charge on the particle a quotient is obtained that is a property of the electric field itself. This value can be calculated in either a static (time-invariant) or a dynamic (varying with time) electric field at a specific time in units of joules per coulomb (J C−1), or volts (V)
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Dysarthria
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system[1] and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.[2] In other words, it is a condition in which problems effectively occur with the muscles that help produce speech, often making it very difficult to pronounce words. It is unrelated to problems with understanding language (that is aphasia),[3] although a person can have both
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Hemiparesis
Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half"). Hemiplegia is, in its most severe form, complete paralysis of half of the body. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia can be caused by different medical conditions, including congenital causes, trauma, tumors, or stroke.[1]Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Loss of motor skills 1.2 "Pusher syndrome" 1.3 Classification of pusher syndrome2 Causes2.1 Common3 Mechanism 4 Diagnosis4.1 Assessment tools5 Treatment5.1 Medication 5.2 Surgery 5.3 Rehabilitation 5.4 Physical therapy 5.5 Occupational therapy6 Prognosis 7 Popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Depending on the type of hemiparesis diagnosed, different bodily functions can be affected. Some effects are expected (e.g., partial paralysis of a limb on the affected side)
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Anaesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness
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Paresthesias
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.[1] The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic, and may have any of dozens of possible underlying causes. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.Contents1 Causes1.1 Transient 1.2 Chronic 1.3 Acroparesthesia 1.4 Dentistry 1.5 Other2 Diagnostic approach 3 Treatment 4 Etymology 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] Transient[edit] Paresthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The briefest, electric shock type of paresthesia can be caused by tweaking the ulnar nerve near the elbow
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Paraparesis
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek
Ionic Greek
παραπληγίη "half-striking". It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition that affects the neural (brain) elements of the spinal canal. The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. Common victims of this impairment are veterans or members of the armed forces. If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia. Spastic paraplegia
Spastic paraplegia
is a form of paraplegia defined by spasticity of the affected muscles, rather than flaccid paralysis. The American Spinal Injury Association classifies spinal cord injury severity
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Medical Imaging
Medical imaging
Medical imaging
is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). Medical imaging
Medical imaging
seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging
Medical imaging
also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities
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Radiology
Radiology
Radiology
is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray
X-ray
radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical images is usually carried out by the radiographer, often known as a Radiologic Technologist. The Diagnostic Radiologist, a specially trained doctor, then interprets or "reads" the images and produces a report of their findings and impression or diagnosis. In some places, a Reporting Radiographer, a radiographer with advanced training, may also interpret basic images
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF
VHF
and UHF
UHF
television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals, and non-crystalline materials through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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Evoked Potential
An evoked potential or evoked response is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus, as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiologic recording method. Such potentials are useful for electrodiagnosis and monitoring. Evoked potential amplitudes tend to be low, ranging from less than a microvolt to several microvolts, compared to tens of microvolts for EEG, millivolts for EMG, and often close to a volt for ECG. To resolve these low-amplitude potentials against the background of ongoing EEG, ECG, EMG, and other biological signals and ambient noise, signal averaging is usually required
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Electroencephalography
Electroencephalography
Electroencephalography
(EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain. It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes placed along the scalp, although invasive electrodes are sometimes used such as in electrocorticography. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current within the neurons of the brain.[1] In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a period of time,[1] as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related potentials or on the spectral content of EEG. The former investigates potential fluctuations time locked to an event like stimulus onset or button press
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Ataxia
Ataxia
Ataxia
is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia
Ataxia
is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum. Ataxia
Ataxia
can be limited to one side of the body, which is referred to as hemiataxia. Several possible causes exist for these patterns of neurological dysfunction. Dystaxia is a mild degree of ataxia
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Electromyography
Electromyography
Electromyography
(EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.[1] EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electric potential generated by muscle cells[2] when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated
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Cerebrospinal Fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, and about 500mL is generated every day. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord
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