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Coraciimorphae
CORACIIMORPHAE is a clade of birds that contains the order Coliiformes (mousebirds) and the clade Eucavitaves (a large assemblage of birds that includes woodpeckers , kingfishers and trogons ). The name however was coined in the 1990s by Sibley and Ahlquist based on their DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. However their Coraciimorphae
Coraciimorphae
only contain Trogoniformes and Coraciiformes
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Picodynastornithes
PICODYNASTORNITHES is a clade that contains the orders Coraciiformes (rollers and kingfishers) and Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and toucans). This grouping also has current and historical support from the molecular and morphological studies. REFERENCES * ^ A B Yuri, T (2013). "Parsimony and model-based analyses of indels in avian nuclear genes reveal congruent and incongruent phylogenetic signals" . Biology. 2: 419–44. PMC 4009869  . PMID 24832669 . doi :10.3390/biology2010419 . * ^ Hackett, S.J.; et al. (2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science. 320: 1763–8. PMID 18583609 . doi :10.1126/science.1157704 . * ^ Ericson, P.G. (2012). "Evolution of terrestrial birds in three continents: biogeography and parallel radiations" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 39 (5): 813–824. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02650.x . * ^ Naish, D. (2012). "Birds." Pp
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Piciformes
For prehistoric taxa, see text SYNONYMS Galbuliformes Fürbringer, 1888 Nine families of largely arboreal birds make up the order PICIFORMES, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. The Piciformes
Piciformes
contain about 71 living genera with a little over 450 species , of which the Picidae (woodpeckers and relatives) make up about half. In general, the Piciformes
Piciformes
are insectivorous, although the barbets and toucans mostly eat fruit and the honeyguides are unique among birds in being able to digest beeswax (although insects make up the bulk of their diet). Nearly all Piciformes
Piciformes
have parrot-like zygodactyl feet—two toes forward and two back, an arrangement that has obvious advantages for birds that spend much of their time on tree trunks. An exception are a few species of three-toed woodpeckers
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Bucerotiformes
BUCEROTIFORMES is an order that contains the hornbills , hoopoe and wood hoopoes . Sometimes classified as members of Coraciiformes although increasing amount of evidence seem to support these birds being distinctive enough to warrant their own order. SYSTEMATICSRecent genetic data show that ground hornbills and Bycanistes form a clade outside the rest of the hornbill lineage. They are thought to represent an early African lineage, while the rest of Bucerotiformes evolved in Asia. The hoopoe subspecies Saint Helena hoopoe and the Madagascar subspecies are sometimes elevated to a full species. The two wood hoopoe genera, Phoeniculus and Rhinopomastus , appear to have diverged about 10 million years ago, so some systematists treat them as separate subfamilies or even separate families
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Picocoraciae
PICOCORACIAE is a clade that contains the order Bucerotiformes (hornbills and hoopoes) and the clade Picodynastornithes
Picodynastornithes
(containing birds like kingfishers and rollers, and woodpeckers and toucans) supported by various genetic analysis and morphological studies. While these studies supported a sister grouping of Coraciiformes and Piciformes, a large scale, sparse supermatrix has suggested alternative sister relationship between Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
and Piciformes instead. PICOCORACIAE Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
(hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes) Picodynastornithes
Picodynastornithes
Coraciiformes (rollers and kingfishers) Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and toucans) REFERENCES * ^ Hackett, S.J.; et al. (2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science
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Leptosomatiformes
The CUCKOO ROLLER or COUROL (Leptosomus discolor) is the only bird in the family LEPTOSOMIDAE, which is usually placed in the order Coraciiformes , which also includes the kingfishers , bee-eaters and rollers . However, its position is not very clear. Morphological evidence may suggest a placement in or near to Falconiformes
Falconiformes
. In the rather comprehensive DNA
DNA
study by Hackett et al, this and the hoatzin are the only two birds whose position is unclear, although the cuckoo roller seems to be at the root of a group that contains the Trogoniformes , Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
, Piciformes
Piciformes
, and Coraciiformes . It is a medium-large bird, inhabiting forests and woodlands in Madagascar
Madagascar
and the Comoro Islands . Three subspecies are described: the nominate L. d
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Cavitaves
CAVITAVES is a clade that contain the order Trogoniformes (trogons) and the clade Picocoraciae
Picocoraciae
(a large assemblage of birds that includes woodpeckers , kingfishers and trogons ). The name refers to the fact that the majority of them nest in cavities. CAVITAVES Trogoniformes (trogons) Picocoraciae
Picocoraciae
Bucerotiformes
Bucerotiformes
(hornbills and hoopoes) Picodynastornithes
Picodynastornithes
Coraciiformes (rollers and kingfishers) Piciformes
Piciformes
(woodpeckers and toucans) REFERENCES * ^ Hackett, S.J.; et al. (2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science. 320: 1763–8. PMID 18583609 . doi :10.1126/science.1157704 . * ^ Ericson, P.G. (2012). "Evolution of terrestrial birds in three continents: biogeography and parallel radiations" (PDF)
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Cladogram
A CLADOGRAM (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms. A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants, nor does it show how much they have changed; many evolutionary trees can be inferred from a single cladogram. A cladogram uses lines that branch off in different directions ending at a clade , a groups of organisms with a last common ancestor . There are many shapes of cladograms but they all have lines that branch off from other lines. The lines can be traced back to where they branch off. These branching off points represent a hypothetical ancestor (not an actual entity) which can be inferred to exhibit the traits shared among the terminal taxa above it. This hypothetical ancestor might then provide clues about the order of evolution of various features, adaptation, and other evolutionary narratives about ancestors
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Jon Edward Ahlquist
JON EDWARD AHLQUIST (born 1944 ) is an American molecular biologist and ornithologist who has specialized in molecular phylogenetics . He has collaborated extensively with Charles Sibley , primarily at Yale University . By 1987, both Ahlquist and Sibley had left Yale. In 1988, Ahlquist and Sibley were awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal by the National Academy of Sciences . In January 1991 (often listed as 1990), Charles Sibley and Ahlquist published Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and Classification of Birds, which presented a new phylogeny for birds based on DNA-DNA hybridisation techniques, known as the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy . At that time, he was an associate professor of zoology at Ohio University
Ohio University
. In 1999, Ahlquist was retired. SEE ALSO * Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy REFERENCES * ^ Theodore W
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Charles Sibley
CHARLES GALD SIBLEY (August 7, 1917 – April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist . He had an immense influence on the scientific classification of birds , and the work that Sibley initiated has substantially altered our understanding of the evolutionary history of modern birds. Sibley's taxonomy has been a major influence on the sequences adopted by ornithological organizations, especially the American Ornithologists\' Union . Charles Sibley is of no known family relation to renowned bird artist David Sibley . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Acid tongue * 3 Other ornithological Sibleys * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading LIFE AND WORKEducated in California
California
(A.B. 1940; Ph.D. 1948 in Zoology, University of California, Berkeley
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Coraciiformes
For prehistoric taxa, see text. Global distribution of the kingfisher and allies.The CORACIIFORMES are a group of usually colorful birds including the kingfishers , the bee-eaters , the rollers , the motmots , and the todies . They generally have syndactyly , with three forward-pointing toes (and toes 3 "> Extinct kingfisher from the Messel Pit White throated kingfisher This order has been seen to be something of a mixed assortment, and the Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
may be considered as including only the rollers. All the other families would then be considered to represent lineages of birds distantly related to Coraciiformes. This seems to be oversplitting , as most Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
indeed form a reasonably robust clade
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Trogoniformes
Apaloderma
Apaloderma
Euptilotis Harpactes Apalharpactes
Apalharpactes
Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon global distributionThe TROGONS and QUETZALS are birds in the order TROGONIFORMES which contains only one family, the TROGONIDAE. The family contains 39 species in seven genera . The fossil record of the trogons dates back 49 million years to the Early Eocene . They might constitute a member of the basal radiation of the order Coraciiformes
Coraciiformes
or be closely related to mousebirds and owls . The word trogon is Greek for "nibbling" and refers to the fact that these birds gnaw holes in trees to make their nests. Trogons are residents of tropical forests worldwide. The greatest diversity is in the Neotropics , where four genera, containing 24 species occur
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