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Commodore 128
The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C= 128,[n 1] or occasionally CBM 128, is the last 8-bit home computer that was commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64. The C128 is a significantly expanded successor to the C64, with nearly full compatibility. The newer machine has 128 kB of RAM
RAM
in two 64 kB banks, and an 80-column color video output. It has a redesigned case and keyboard. Also included is a Zilog Z80
Zilog Z80
CPU which allows the C128 to run CP/M, as an alternative to the usual Commodore BASIC environment
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Structured Programming
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain. It emerged in the late 1950s with the appearance of the ALGOL 58 and ALGOL 60 programming languages,[1] with the latter including support for block structures. Contributing factors to its popularity and widespread acceptance, at first in academia and later among practitioners, include the discovery of what is now known as the structured program theorem in 1966,[2] and the publication of the influential "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" open letter in 1968 by Dutch computer scientist Edsger W
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IBM PC
The IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM
IBM
PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
hardware platform. It is IBM
IBM
model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM
IBM
Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term personal computer was in use before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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Alt Key
The Alt key
Alt key
(pronounced /ˈɔːlt/ or /ˈʌlt/) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key
Alt key
is a modifier key, used in a similar fashion to the Shift key. For example, simply pressing "A" will type the letter a, but if you hold down either Alt key
Alt key
while pressing A, the computer will perform an Alt+A function, which varies from program to program. The international standard ISO/IEC 9995-2 calls it Alternate key. The key is located on either side of the Space bar, but in non-US PC keyboard layouts, rather than a second Alt key, there is an 'Alt Gr' key to the right of the space bar
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Esc Key
On computer keyboards, the Esc key (named Escape key in the international standard series ISO/IEC 9995) is a key used to generate the escape character (which can be represented as ASCII code 27 in decimal, Unicode U+001B, or Ctrl+[)
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Tab Key
The tab key Tab ↹ (abbreviation of tabulator key[1] or tabular key[2]) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.Contents1 History 2 Modern usage 3 Tab characters3.1 Tab-separated values (TSV) 3.2 HTML 3.3 Unicode4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]The tab rack from a Flexowriter
Flexowriter
model 2201. On this machine, the tab-rack is removable for easy reconfiguration.The word tab derives from the word tabulate, which means "to arrange data in a tabular, or table, form." When a person wanted to type a table (of numbers or text) on a typewriter, there was a lot of time-consuming and repetitive use of the space bar and backspace key. To simplify this, a horizontal bar was placed in the mechanism called the tabulator rack. Pressing the tab key would advance the carriage to the next tabulator stop
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Numeric Keypad
A numeric keypad, number pad, numpad, or ten key,[1][2][3] is the palm-sized, 17-key section of a standard computer keyboard, usually on the far right. It provides calculator-style efficiency for entering numbers. The numpad's keys are digits 0 to 9, + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication) and / (division) symbols, . (decimal point), Num Lock, and ↵ Enter keys.[4] Laptop
Laptop
keyboards often do not have a numpad, but may provide numpad input by holding a modifier key (typically labelled Fn) and operating keys on the standard keyboard
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Productivity Software
Productivity software (sometimes called personal productivity software or office productivity software[1]) is application software dedicated to producing information, such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts, graphs, digital paintings, electronic music and digital video.[2] Its names arose from the fact that it increases productivity, especially of individual office workers, from typists to knowledge workers, although its scope is now wider than that. Office suites, which brought word processing, spreadsheet, and relational database programs to the desktop in the 1980s, are the core example of productivity software. They revolutionized the office with the magnitude of the productivity increase they brought as compared with the pre-1980s office environments of typewriters, paper filing, and handwritten lists and ledgers
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Machine Language
Machine code
Machine code
or machine language is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions
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MLX (software)
MLX is a series of machine language entry utilities published by the magazines COMPUTE! and COMPUTE!'s Gazette, as well as books from COMPUTE! Publications. These programs were designed to allow relatively easy entry of the type-in machine language listings that were often included in these publications
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Megahertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Las Vegas Valley
The Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Nevada
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Multiprocessing
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.[1][2] The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them
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Heat Sink
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink[1]) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool central processing units or graphics processors. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature. A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink
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Mode (computer Interface)
In user interface design, a mode is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different to those that it would in other settings
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