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Commodore 128
The COMMODORE 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C= 128, or occasionally CBM 128, is the last 8-bit home computer that was commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas , it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64
Commodore 64
. The C128 is a significantly expanded successor to the C64, with nearly full compatibility. The newer machine has 128 kB of RAM
RAM
in two 64 kB banks, and an 80-column color video output. It has a redesigned case and keyboard . Also included is a Zilog Z80
Zilog Z80
CPU which allows the C128 to run CP/M
CP/M
, as an alternative to the usual Commodore BASIC environment
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Productivity Software
PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE (sometimes called PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE or OFFICE PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE ) is application software dedicated to producing information, such as documents , presentations , worksheets , databases , charts , graphs , digital paintings , electronic music and digital video . Its names arose from the fact that it increases productivity , especially of individual office workers , from typists to knowledge workers , although its scope is now wider than that. Office suites , which brought word processing , spreadsheet , and relational database programs to the desktop in the 1980s, are the core example of productivity software. They revolutionized the office with the magnitude of the productivity increase they brought as compared with the pre-1980s office environments of typewriters, paper filing, and handwritten lists and ledgers
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Machine Language
MACHINE CODE or MACHINE LANGUAGE is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer 's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump , or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions. (The phrase 'directly executed' needs some qualification: machine code is by definition the lowest level of programming detail visible to the programmer, but internally many processors use microcode or optimise and transform machine code instructions into sequences of micro-ops in a sophisticated way.) Numerical machine code (i.e., not assembly code ) may be regarded as the lowest-level representation of a compiled or assembled computer program or as a primitive and hardware -dependent programming language
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MLX (software)
MLX is a series of machine language entry utilities published by the magazines COMPUTE! and COMPUTE!\'s Gazette , as well as books from COMPUTE! Publications. These programs were designed to allow relatively easy entry of the type-in machine language listings that were often included in these publications. Versions were available for the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
, PET , VIC-20 , Atari 8-bit family
Atari 8-bit family
and Apple II
Apple II
. CONTENTS * 1 First version * 2 Improved version * 3 References * 4 External links FIRST VERSIONMLX was introduced in the December 1983 issue of COMPUTE!, with versions for the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
and Atari 8-bit family
Atari 8-bit family
. This was followed the next month by Tiny MLX for the VIC-20
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IBM PC
The IBM
IBM
PERSONAL COMPUTER, commonly known as the IBM
IBM
PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
hardware platform . It is IBM
IBM
model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM
IBM
Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton, Florida
. The generic term personal computer was in use before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC 's Alto , but because of the success of the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products
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Numeric Keypad
A NUMERIC KEYPAD, NUMBER PAD, NUMPAD, or TEN KEY, is the palm-sized, 17-key section of a standard computer keyboard , usually on the far right. It provides calculator-style efficiency for entering numbers. The numpad's keys are digits 0 to 9, + (addition ), - (subtraction ), * (multiplication ) and / (division ) symbols, . (decimal point ), Num Lock
Num Lock
, and ↵ Enter keys. Laptop
Laptop
keyboards often do not have a numpad, but may provide numpad input by holding a modifier key (typically labelled Fn) and operating keys on the standard keyboard
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Tab Key
Tab ↹ TAB KEY (abbreviation of TABULATOR KEY or TABULAR KEY ) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Modern usage * 3 Tab characters * 3.1 Tab-separated values (TSV) * 3.2 HTML
HTML
* 3.3 Unicode
Unicode
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY The tab rack from a Flexowriter model 2201. On this machine, the tab-rack is removable for easy reconfiguration. The word tab derives from the word tabulate, which means "to arrange data in a tabular, or table, form." When a person wanted to type a table (of numbers or text) on a typewriter , there was a lot of time-consuming and repetitive use of the space bar and backspace key. To simplify this, a horizontal bar was placed in the mechanism called the tabulator rack. Pressing the tab key would advance the carriage to the next tabulator stop
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Las Vegas Valley
The LAS VEGAS VALLEY is a major metropolitan area located in the southern part of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Nevada
Nevada
. The largest urban agglomeration in the state, it is the heart of the Las Vegas–Paradise- Henderson, NV MSA . The Valley is largely defined by the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Valley landform, a 600 sq mi (1,600 km2) basin area surrounded by mountains to the north, south, east and west of the metropolitan area. The Valley is home to the three largest incorporated cities in Nevada: Las Vegas
Las Vegas
, Henderson and North Las Vegas . Five unincorporated towns governed by the Clark County government are part of the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Township and constitute the largest community in the state of Nevada
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Random Access Memory
RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY (RAM /ræm/ ) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory , the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. Usually more than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, and RAM devices often have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices
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Alt Key
⌥ Opt or Alt The ALT KEY (pronounced /ˈɔːlt/ or /ˈʌlt/ ) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key
Alt key
is a modifier key , used in a similar fashion to the Shift key . For example, simply pressing "A" will type the letter a, but if you hold down either Alt key
Alt key
while pressing A, the computer will perform an Alt+A function, which varies from program to program. The international standard ISO/IEC 9995 -2 calls it Alternate key. The key is located on either side of the Space bar , but in non-US PC keyboard layouts, rather than a second Alt key, there is an 'Alt Gr ' key to the right of the space bar. Both placements are in accordance with ISO/IEC 9995-2
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Esc Key
On computer keyboards , the ESC KEY (named Escape key in the international standard series ISO/IEC 9995
ISO/IEC 9995
) is a key used to generate the escape character (which can be represented as ASCII
ASCII
code 27 in decimal, Unicode
Unicode
U+001B, or Ctrl+ ISO keyboard symbol for "Escape" The keyboard symbol for the ESC key (which may be used when the usual Latin lettering "Esc" is not preferred for labelling the key) is standardized in ISO/IEC 9995
ISO/IEC 9995
-7 as symbol 29, and in ISO 7000 "Graphical symbols for use on equipment" as symbol ISO-7000-2029. This symbol is encoded in Unicode
Unicode
as U+238B broken circle with northwest arrow (⎋). ORIGINSThe Escape key's creation is credited to Bob Bemer , a computer programmer who worked for IBM
IBM

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Megahertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Multiprocessing
MULTIPROCESSING is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system . The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them. There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die , multiple dies in one package , multiple packages in one system unit , etc.). According to some on-line dictionaries, a MULTIPROCESSOR is a computer system having two or more processing units (multiple processors) each sharing main memory and peripherals, in order to simultaneously process programs. A 2009 textbook defined multiprocessor system similarly, but noting that the processors may share "some or all of the system’s memory and I/O facilities"; it also gave TIGHTLY COUPLED SYSTEM as a synonymous term
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IBM PC Compatibles
IBM PC COMPATIBLE computers are those similar to the original IBM PC , XT , and AT , able to run the same software and support the same expansion cards as those. Such computers used to be referred to as PC CLONES, or IBM CLONES. They duplicate almost exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS
BIOS
firmware using a "clean room design " technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as the original PC and AT models. The IBM AT compatible bus was later named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales
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PEEK And POKE
In computing , PEEK is a BASIC
BASIC
programming language extension used for reading the contents of a memory cell at a specified address . The corresponding command to set the contents of a memory cell is POKE. Peek and poke are also implemented in popular versions of Pascal as well as in a few lesser known programming languages, such as COMAL , a structured Pascal-like BASIC
BASIC
dialect
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Color Graphics Adapter
Plantronics Colorplus PCjr/ Tandy Graphics Adapter
Tandy Graphics Adapter
Enhanced Graphics Adapter Multi-Color Graphics Array Professional Graphics Controller Original IBM
IBM
Color Graphics Adapter
Color Graphics Adapter
The COLOR GRAPHICS ADAPTER (CGA), originally also called the Color/Graphics Adapter or IBM
IBM
Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter, introduced in 1981, was IBM
IBM
's first graphics card and first color display card for the IBM
IBM
PC . For this reason, it also became that computer's first color computer display standard
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