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Coinage Act Of 1857
The Coinage Act of 1857
Coinage Act of 1857
(Act of Feb. 21, 1857, Chap. 56, 34th Cong., Sess. III, 11 Stat. 163) was an act of the United States Congress which ended the status of foreign coins as legal tender, repealing all acts "authorizing the currency of foreign gold or silver coins". Specific coins would be exchanged at the Treasury and re-coined. The act is divided into seven sections.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Effects 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 External linksBackground[edit] Before the Act, foreign coins, such as the Spanish dollar, were widely used[1] and allowed as legal tender by the Act of April 10, 1806.[2] The Coinage Act of 1857
Coinage Act of 1857
also discontinued the half cent. Furthermore, the penny was reduced in size
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Copper
Copper
Copper
is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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United States President
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Congressional districts
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Library Of Congress
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
(LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States
United States
Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.[3] The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
claims to be the largest library in the world.[4][5] Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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American Memory
American Memory
American Memory
is an Internet-based archive for public domain image resources, as well as audio, video, and archived Web content. It is published by the Library of Congress. The archive came into existence on October 13, 1994, after $13 million was raised in private donations.[1] History[edit] The pilot for the American Memory
American Memory
project was a digitization program which started in 1990. Selected Library of Congress
Library of Congress
holdings including examples of film, video, audio recordings, books and photographs were digitized and distributed on Laserdisc
Laserdisc
and CD-ROM. When the World Wide Web accelerated in 1993, the pilot program was refocused to deliver digitized materials by way of the internet.[2][3] The National Digital Library was created through bipartisan support in the United States Congress
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Monopoly
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos ["alone" or "single"] and πωλεῖν pōleîn ["to sell"]) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market.[2] Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit.[3] The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller
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Money Supply
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.[1] There are several ways to define "money", but standard measures usually include currency in circulation and demand deposits (depositors' easily accessed assets on the books of financial institutions).[2][3] Money
Money
supply data are recorded and published, usually by the government or the central bank of the country. Public and private sector analysts have long monitored changes in the money supply because of the belief that it affects the price level, inflation, the exchange rate and the business cycle.[4] That relation between money and prices is historically associated with the quantity theory of money. There is strong empirical evidence of a direct relation between money-supply growth and long-term price inflation, at least for rapid increases in the amount of money in the economy
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Alloy
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character.[1] An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength
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Nickel
Nickel
Nickel
is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks,[4][5] and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis
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James B. Longacre
James Barton Longacre (August 11, 1794 – January 1, 1869) was an American portraitist and engraver, and from 1844 until his death the fourth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint. Longacre is best known for designing the Indian Head cent, which entered commerce in 1859, and for the designs of the Shield nickel, Flying Eagle cent and other coins of the mid-19th century. Longacre was born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania in 1794. He ran away to Philadelphia at age 12, becoming an apprentice in a bookstore. His artistic talent developed and he was released to apprentice in an engraving firm. He struck out on his own in 1819, making a name providing illustrations for popular biographical books. He portrayed the leading men of his day; support from some of them, such as South Carolina Senator John C
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United States Mint
The United States
United States
Mint produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; that responsibility belongs to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The Mint was created in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1792, and soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point.Contents1 History 2 Current facilities2.1 Philadelphia 2.2 Denver 2.3 San Francisco 2.4 West Point 2.5 Fort Knox3 Functions 4 Mintmarks 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]The First US Branch Mint in California is located at 608–619 Commercial Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County. The branch opened on April 3, 1854
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Bank War
The Bank War
Bank War
refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States
(BUS) during the presidency of Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837)
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Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man"[1] against a "corrupt aristocracy"[2] and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later known as the Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter
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Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(/ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə/) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872[7] and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016[update].[5] Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware
Delaware
Valley, located along the lower Delaware
Delaware
and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis
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