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Coinage Act Of 1857
The COINAGE ACT OF 1857 (Act of Feb. 21, 1857, Chap. 56, 34th Cong., Sess. III, 11 Stat. 163) was an act of the United States Congress which ended the status of foreign coins as legal tender , repealing all acts "authorizing the currency of foreign gold or silver coins". Specific coins would be exchanged at the Treasury and re-coined. The act is divided into seven sections. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 History * 3 Effects * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BACKGROUNDBefore the Act, foreign coins, such as the Spanish dollar
Spanish dollar
, were widely used and allowed as legal tender by the Act of April 10, 1806 . The Coinage Act of 1857
Coinage Act of 1857
also discontinued the half cent. Furthermore, the penny was reduced in size. The large cent was discontinued and regular coinage of the Flying Eagle cent
Flying Eagle cent
began
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Alloy
An ALLOY is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element . Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel , solder , brass , pewter , duralumin , bronze and amalgams
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Money Supply
In economics , the MONEY SUPPLY (or MONEY STOCK) is the total amount of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time. There are several ways to define "money", but standard measures usually include currency in circulation and demand deposits (depositors' easily accessed assets on the books of financial institutions). Money
Money
supply data are recorded and published, usually by the government or the central bank of the country. Public and private sector analysts have long monitored changes in money supply because of the belief that it affects the price level , inflation , the exchange rate and the business cycle . That relation between money and prices is historically associated with the quantity theory of money . There is strong empirical evidence of a direct relation between money-supply growth and long-term price inflation, at least for rapid increases in the amount of money in the economy
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Andrew Jackson
ANDREW JACKSON (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States
United States
from 1829 to 1837 and was the founder of the Democratic Party . Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States
United States
Army and served in both houses of Congress . As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the Waxhaws , Jackson became a lawyer in the Western District of North Carolina
North Carolina
(now part of Tennessee
Tennessee
) and married Rachel Donelson Robards . He served briefly in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing Tennessee
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Bank War
The BANK WAR refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States
(BUS) during the presidency of Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837). The affair resulted in the destruction of the bank and its replacement by various state banks. Anti-Bank Jacksonian Democrats were mobilized in opposition to the national bank’s re-authorization on the grounds that the institution conferred economic privileges on a small group of financial elites, violating Constitutional principles of social equality. The Jacksonians considered the Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States
to be an illegitimate corporation whose charter violated state sovereignty, posing an implicit threat to the agriculture-based economy dependent upon the Southern states' widely practiced institution of slavery
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Monopoly
A MONOPOLY (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn ) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market). Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service , a lack of viable substitute goods , and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit . The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices
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Murray N. Rothbard
MURRAY NEWTON ROTHBARD (/ˈmʌri ˈrɒθbɑːrd/ ; March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School , a revisionist historian , and a political theorist (pp11, 286, 380) whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern libertarianism . Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of anarcho-capitalism , a staunch advocate of historical revisionism , and a central figure in the twentieth-century American libertarian movement. He wrote over twenty books on political theory, revisionist history, economics, and other subjects. Rothbard asserted that all services provided by the "monopoly system of the corporate state" could be provided more efficiently by the private sector and wrote that the state is "the organization of robbery systematized and writ large." He called fractional-reserve banking a form of fraud and opposed central banking
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American Memory
AMERICAN MEMORY is an Internet
Internet
-based archive for public domain image resources, as well as audio , video , and archived Web content. It is published by the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. The archive came into existence on October 13, 1994, after $13 million was raised in private donations. HISTORYThe pilot for the American Memory
American Memory
project was a digitization program which started in 1990. Selected Library of Congress
Library of Congress
holdings including examples of film, video, audio recordings, books and photographs were digitized and distributed on Laserdisc
Laserdisc
and CD-ROM
CD-ROM
. When the World Wide Web accelerated in 1993, the pilot program was refocused to deliver digitized materials by way of the internet
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor ; short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals , it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Access * 3.1 Aaron Swartz incident * 3.2 Limitations * 3.3 Increasing public access * 4 Use * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORY William G. Bowen , president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, founded JSTOR
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Library Of Congress
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States
United States
Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States
United States
. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill
Capitol Hill
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia , which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center . The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
claims to be the largest library in the world . Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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United States President
------------------------- * HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES * Speaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R) * Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R) * Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D) * Congressional districts
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United States Mint
The UNITED STATES MINT produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce , as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; that responsibility belongs to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
. The Mint was created in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1792, and soon joined by other centres, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point
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