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Chipset
In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals. It is usually found on the motherboard. Chipsets are usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance. Intel
Intel
ICH7 Southbridge on Intel
Intel
D945GCPE Desktop BoardContents1 Computers 2 Move toward processor integration in PCs 3 See also 4 NotesComputers[edit] In computing, the term chipset commonly refers to a set of specialized chips on a computer's motherboard or an expansion card
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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Sound Card
 via one of:PCI ISA USB IEEE 1394 IBM PC Parallel Port PCI-E MCA (rare) PCMCIA
PCMCIA
interfaces (PC Card, Expresscard)Line in or out: via one of:Analogue - phone, RCA or DIN connector Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBUMicrophone via one of:Phone connector PIN connectorCommon manufacturers Creative Labs
Creative Labs
(and subsidiary E-mu Systems) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUSA sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications. Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to those found on plug-in cards. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a sound card
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Main Memory
Computer
Computer
data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU
CPU
consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Data Flow
If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a definition already, change this tag to TWCleanup2 or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing the text on this page with Wi
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Bus (computing)
In computer architecture, a bus[1] (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols.[2] Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus
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PCI Local Bus
Local
Local
usually refers to something nearby, or in the immediate area. Local
Local
may refer to:Contents1 Geography and transportation 2 Li
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USB
USB, short for Universal Serial Bus, is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. [3] USB
USB
was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices
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X86
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures[a] based on the Intel
Intel
8086
8086
CPU and its Intel
Intel
8088 variant. The 8086
8086
was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit-based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address
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Graphics
Graphics
Graphics
(from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage it includes: a pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics
Graphics
often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design
Graphic design
may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flyer, poster, web site, or book without any other element
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Apple Inc.
Coordinates: 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118Apple Inc.The Apple Campus
Apple Campus
in Cupertino, CaliforniaFormerly calledApple Computer Company (1976–1977) Apple Computer, Inc. (1977–2007)TypePublicTraded asNASDAQ: AAPL NASDAQ-100
NASDAQ-100
component DJIA component S&P 100 component S&P 500 componentISIN US0378331005IndustryComputer hardware Computer software Consumer electronics Digital distribution Semiconductors Fabless silicon design Corporate venture capitalFounded April 1, 1976; 42 years ago (1976-04-01)FoundersSteve Jobs Steve Wozniak Ronald WayneHeadquarters Apple Park, 1 Apple Park
Apple Park
Way, Cupertino, California, U.S.Number of locations499 retail stores (2017)Area servedWorldwideKey people Arthur D
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UNIX
Unix
Unix
(/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.[3] Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix
Unix
variants from vendors like the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(BSD), Microsoft
Microsoft
(Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(Solaris)
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Server (computing)
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers
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NCR 53C9x
The NCR 53C9x is a family of application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) produced by the former NCR Corporation and others for implementing the SCSI (small computer standard interface) bus protocol in hardware and relieving the host system of the work required to sequence the SCSI bus. The 53C9x was a low-cost solution and was therefore widely adopted by OEMs in various motherboard and peripheral device designs. The original 53C90 lacked direct memory access (DMA) capability, an omission that was addressed in the 53C90A and subsequent versions. The 53C90(A) supported the SCSI-1 protocol, implemented the eight bit parallel SCSI bus, and eight bit host data bus transfers. The 53C94 added SCSI-2 features to those of the 53C90A, and the 53C96 added support for the high voltage differential (HVD) parallel bus. The 53CF94 and 53CF96 also implemented larger transfer sizes and 20 MB/second synchronous SCSI bus speed (the so-called ultra-SCSI protocol)
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SCSI
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI, /ˈskʌzi/ SKUZ-ee)[1] is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI
SCSI
standards define commands, protocols, electrical and optical interfaces. SCSI
SCSI
is most commonly used for hard disk drives and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives, although not all controllers can handle all devices
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