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Chipset
In a computer system, a CHIPSET is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manages the data flow between the processor , memory and peripherals . It is usually found on the motherboard . Chipsets are usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors . Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance. Intel
Intel
ICH7 Southbridge on Intel D945GCPE Desktop Board CONTENTS * 1 Computers * 2 Move toward processor integration in PCs * 3 See also * 4 Notes COMPUTERSIn computing , the term chipset commonly refers to a set of specialized chips on a computer 's motherboard or an expansion card . In personal computers , the first chipset for the IBM PC AT of 1984 was the NEAT chipset developed by Chips and Technologies
Chips and Technologies
for the Intel 80286 CPU
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Integrated Circuit
An INTEGRATED CIRCUIT or MONOLITHIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (also referred to as an IC, a CHIP, or a MICROCHIP) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon . The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components . The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics . Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs
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Bus (computing)
In computer architecture , a BUS (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer , or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols. Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus . Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections, and can be wired in either a multidrop (electrical parallel) or daisy chain topology, or connected by switched hubs, as in the case of USB
USB

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PCI Local Bus
CONVENTIONAL PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer . PCI is the initialism for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard. The PCI bus supports the functions found on a processor bus but in a standardized format that is independent of any particular processor's native bus. Devices connected to the PCI bus appear to a bus master to be connected directly to its own bus and are assigned addresses in the processor's address space. It is a parallel bus, synchronous to a single bus clock . Attached devices can take either the form of an integrated circuit fitted onto the motherboard itself (called a planar device in the PCI specification) or an expansion card that fits into a slot. The PCI Local Bus was first implemented in IBM PC compatibles , where it displaced the combination of several slow ISA slots and one fast VESA Local Bus slot as the bus configuration
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Main Memory
COMPUTER DATA STORAGE, often called STORAGE or MEMORY, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. :15-16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , :468-473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU
CPU
and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage"; however, "memory" is sometimes also used when referring to persistent storage
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System 16
The following is a LIST OF ARCADE SYSTEM BOARDS released by SEGA . For games running on these system boards, see List of Sega
Sega
arcade games
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Graphics
GRAPHICS (from Greek γραφικός 'graphikos', 'something written' e.g. autograph) are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas , screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage it includes: pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics . Examples are photographs , drawings , Line art , graphs , diagrams , typography , numbers , symbols , geometric designs, maps , engineering drawings , or other images . Graphics
Graphics
often combine text , illustration , and color . Graphic design
Graphic design
may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flyer, poster, web site, or book without any other element
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SEGA
SEGA GAMES CO., LTD. (Japanese : 株式会社セガゲームス, Hepburn : Kabushiki gaisha Sega
Sega
gēmusu), originally short for SERVICE GAMES and officially styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices around the world. Sega
Sega
developed and manufactured numerous home video game consoles from 1983 to 2001, but after financial losses incurred from its Dreamcast
Dreamcast
console, the company restructured to focus on providing software as a third-party developer. Sega
Sega
remains the world's most prolific arcade producer, with over 500 games in over 70 franchises on more than 20 different arcade system boards since 1981
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USB
USB, short for UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS, is an industry standard that defines cables, connectors and communications protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and devices. USB
USB
was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices , digital cameras, printers, portable media players , disk drives and network adapters ) to personal computers , both to communicate and to supply electric power . It has largely replaced a variety of earlier interfaces, such as serial ports and parallel ports , as well as separate power chargers for portable devices – and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices. Created in the mid-1990s, it is currently developed by the USB Implementers Forum ( USB
USB
IF)
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Sound Card
via one of: * PCI * ISA * USB * IEEE 1394 * IBM PC Parallel Port * PCI-E * MCA (rare) * PCMCIA interfaces ( PC Card , Expresscard )Line in or out: via one of: * Analogue - phone , RCA or DIN connector * Digital - RCA, TOSLink or AES/EBU Microphone via one of: * Phone connector * PIN connector COMMON MANUFACTURERS Creative Labs (and subsidiary E-mu Systems ) Realtek C-Media MARIAN digital audio electronics M-Audio Turtle Beach ASUS A SOUND CARD (also known as an AUDIO CARD) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs . The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces used for professional audio applications
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NCR 53C9x
The NCR 53C9X is a family of application-specific integrated circuits ( ASIC
ASIC
) produced by the former NCR Corporation
NCR Corporation
and others for implementing the SCSI
SCSI
(small computer standard interface) bus protocol in hardware and relieving the host system of the work required to sequence the SCSI
SCSI
bus. The 53C9x was a low-cost solution and was therefore widely adopted by OEMs in various motherboard and peripheral device designs. The original 53C90 lacked direct memory access (DMA) capability, an omission that was addressed in the 53C90A and subsequent versions. The 53C90(A) supported the SCSI-1 protocol, implemented the eight bit parallel SCSI
SCSI
bus, and eight bit host data bus transfers. The 53C94 added SCSI-2 features to those of the 53C90A, and the 53C96 added support for the high voltage differential (HVD) parallel bus
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SCSI
SMALL COMPUTER SYSTEM INTERFACE (SCSI, /ˈskʌzi/ SKUZ-ee ) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices . The SCSI standards define commands , protocols, electrical and optical interfaces . SCSI is most commonly used for hard disk drives and tape drives , but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives , although not all controllers can handle all devices. The SCSI standard defines command sets for specific peripheral device types ; the presence of "unknown" as one of these types means that in theory it can be used as an interface to almost any device, but the standard is highly pragmatic and addressed toward commercial requirements. SCSI-2 was published in August 1990 as X3.T9.2/86-109 (based on SCSI-1 X3.131-1986) by the X3T9 technical committee of ANSI and is still an active standard
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MIPS Magnum
MAGNUM, from the Latin
Latin
for 'largest' or 'greatest', may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Businesses and organizations * 2 In arts and entertainment * 2.1 In music * 2.2 Other uses in arts and entertainment * 3 In science and technology * 3.1 Vehicles * 3.2 Other uses in science and technology * 4 Other products * 5 Other uses * 6 See also BUSINESSES AND ORGANIZATIONS * Magnum Research
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Server (computing)
In computing , a SERVER is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients ". This architecture is called the client–server model , and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device. Typical servers are database servers , file servers , mail servers , print servers , web servers , game servers , and application servers
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Unix
UNIX (/ˈjuː.nɪks/ ; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking , multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson
Ken Thompson
, Dennis Ritchie , and others. Initially intended for use inside the Bell System
Bell System
, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties from the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial variants of Unix
Unix
from vendors such as the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
( BSD
BSD
), Microsoft
Microsoft
( Xenix
Xenix
), IBM ( AIX
AIX
) and Sun Microsystems (Solaris )
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X86
X86
X86
is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel
Intel
8086 CPU and its Intel
Intel
8088
8088
variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit -based 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address. The term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186 , 80286 , 80386 and 80486
80486
processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years, almost consistently with full backward compatibility
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