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Centaurea
Cyanus L. Plectocephalus D.Don in R.Sweet (but see text) Centaurea
Centaurea
(/ˌsɛntɔːˈriːə/)[1] is a genus of between 350 and 600 species of herbaceous thistle-like flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Members of the genus are found only north of the equator, mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere; the Middle East
Middle East
and surrounding regions are particularly species-rich. Common names for this genus are centaury, centory, starthistles, knapweeds, centaureas and the more ambiguous "bluets"; a vernacular name used for these plants in parts of England is "loggerheads" (common knapweed). The Plectocephalus group – possibly a distinct genus – is known as basketflowers. "Cornflowers" is used for a few species, but that term more often specifically means C
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Grass
Gramineae Juss.Blades of grass Poaceae
Poaceae
(Poe-ay-see-ay) or Gramineae (Grammy-nee-ay) is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. Poaceae
Poaceae
includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath
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Morphology (biology)
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.[1] This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern, size), i.e. external morphology (or eidonomy), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology (or anatomy). This is in contrast to physiology, which deals primarily with function
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Centaurium
Erythraea Borkh.Centaurium (Centaury) is a genus of 20 species in the gentian family (Gentianaceae), tribe Chironieae, subtribe Chironiinae. The genus was named after the centaur Chiron, famed in Greek mythology for his skill in medicinal herbs. It is distributed across Europe and into Asia. Until 2004, Centaurium was given a much wider circumscription, comprising about 50 species ranging across Europe, Asia, the Americas, Australasia and the Pacific. However this circumscription was polyphyletic, so in 2004 the genus was split in four, being Centaurium sensu stricto, Zeltnera, Gyrandra and Schenkia.[1]Contents1 Species 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSpecies[edit]C. barrelieri (Duf.) F. Q. & Rothm. C. bianoris (Sennen) Sennen C. calycosum (Buckley) Fernald C. capense Broome C. centaurioides (Roxb.) Rolla Rao & Hemadri C. chloodes (Brot.) Samp. C. davyi (Jeps.) Abrams C. erythraea Rafn C. exaltatum (Griseb.) W
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Weed
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens, lawns, and parks. Taxonomically, the term "weed" has no botanical significance, because a plant that is a weed in one context is not a weed when growing in a situation where it is in fact wanted, and where one species of plant is a valuable crop plant, another species in the same genus might be a serious weed, such as a wild bramble growing among cultivated loganberries. In the same way, volunteer crops (plants) are regarded as weeds in a subsequent crop. Many plants that people widely regard as weeds also are intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings, in which case they are sometimes called beneficial weeds
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Pseudanthium
A pseudanthium (Greek for "false flower"), also called a flower head or composite flower,[1]:514 is a special type of inflorescence,[2] in which anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure. Pseudanthia take various forms. The individual flowers of a pseudanthium commonly are called florets.[3] The real flowers (the florets) are generally small and often greatly reduced, but the pseudanthium itself can sometimes be quite large (as in the heads of some varieties of sunflower). Pseudanthia are characteristic of the daisy and sunflower family (Asteraceae), whose flowers are differentiated into ray flowers and disk flowers, unique to this family. The disk flowers in the center of the pseudanthium are actinomorphic and the corolla is fused into a tube
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Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the rachis. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Glaucous Sedge
Carex
Carex
glauca Scop. Carex
Carex
flacca, with common names blue sedge, gray carex, glaucous sedge, or carnation-grass, (syn. Carex
Carex
glauca), is a species of sedge native to parts of Europe
Europe
and North Africa.[1] It is frequent in a range of habitats, including grasslands, moorlands, exposed and disturbed soil, and the upper edges of salt marshes.[1] It has naturalized in eastern North America.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Cultivation 3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] Carex
Carex
flacca leaves are blue-green above, glaucous beneath, to 6–12 inches (15–30 cm) in height. The arching leaves are about as long as the inflorescence, 12–16 inches (30–41 cm). The plant spreads in expanding clumps by lateral shoots rooting.[1] Most stems have two male spikes, close together and often looking like one at first glance
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Calcareous Soil
Calcareous
Calcareous
is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky. The term is used in a wide variety of scientific disciplines.Contents1 In zoology 2 In botany 3 In medicine 4 In geology4.1 Marine sediments 4.2 Calcareous
Calcareous
soils 4.3 List of calcareous lakes5 In electrochemistry 6 ReferencesIn zoology[edit] Calcareous
Calcareous
is used as an adjectival term applied to anatomical structures which are made primarily of calcium carbonate, in animals such as gastropods, i.e., snails, specifically about such structures as the operculum, the clausilium, and the love dart. The term also applies to the calcium carbonate tests of often more or less microscopic Foraminifera
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Bract
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale. Bracts are often (but not always) different from foliage leaves. They may be smaller, larger, or of a different color, shape, or texture
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Tor-grass
Brachypodium
Brachypodium
pinnatum, the heath false brome[2] or tor-grass, is a plant in the grass family, with a widespread distribution in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It typically grows in calcareous grassland, and reaches 70–120 centimetres (28–47 in) tall. The flowerhead is open, with 10 to 15 erect spikelets.Contents1 Distribution 2 Ecology 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDistribution[edit] The plant can be found in such US states as California, Massachusetts, and Oregon.[2] Ecology[edit]Blooming next to low garden wallThe caterpillars of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
use it as a foodplant, e.g. the Essex skipper
Essex skipper
(Thymelicus lineola)
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Arid
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America, Central America
Central America
and Australia. Change over time[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The latter does change significantly over time through climate change. For example, temperature increase (by 1.5–2.1 percent) across the Nile Basin over the next 30–40 years could change the region from semi-arid to arid, resulting in a significant reduction in agricultural land
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Rendzina
Rendzina
Rendzina
(or rendsina) is a soil type recognized in various soil classification systems, including those of Britain[1] and Germany[2] as well as some obsolete systems
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False Oat-grass
Arrhenatherum
Arrhenatherum
elatius, with the common names false oat-grass, tall oat-grass, tall meadow oat, onion couch and tuber oat-grass, is a perennial species of grass, common in the temperate regions of Europe. This bunchgrass is often used as an ornamental grass. It is native to Europe
Europe
but can be found elsewhere as an introduced species. It is found especially in prairies, at the side of roads and in uncultivated fields. The bulbous variety can be a weed of arable land. It is palatable grass for livestock and is used both as forage (pasture) and fodder (hay and silage); it has high amounts of phosphorus and calcium in its tissues.[citation needed] Two subspecies have been described: Arrhenatherum
Arrhenatherum
elatius subsp. elatius, the more common variety. Arrhenatherum
Arrhenatherum
elatius var
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Crested Dog's-tail
Cynosurus
Cynosurus
cristatus, Crested dog's-tail, is a short-lived perennial grass in the family Poaceae, characterised by a seed head that is flat on one side. It typically grows in species rich grassland. It thrives in a variety of soil types but avoids the acid and calcareous extremes of pH, and prefers well drained soils.[1] It may be grown as an ornamental plant.[citation needed] It is also known as crételle (French) and Wiesen-Kammgras (German, meaning meadow comb-grass)
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