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Caspian Depression
The CASPIAN DEPRESSION (Russian : Прикаспи́йская ни́зменность, IPA: , CASPIAN LOWLAND) or PRICASPIAN/PERI-CASPIAN DEPRESSION/LOWLAND is a low-lying flatland region encompassing the northern part of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, the largest enclosed body of water on Earth
Earth
. It is the larger northern part of the wider Aral-Caspian Depression around the Aral and Caspian seas. The level of the Caspian sea is 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, however several places in the depression are even lower, and among them Karagiye near Aktau
Aktau
is the lowest at −132 metres (−433 ft). The depression lies at the southern end of the Ryn Desert , and is in both Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
. Most of the Russian Republic of Kalmykia lies in the Caspian Depression
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Agricultural
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Geology Of Europe
The GEOLOGY OF EUROPE is varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent , from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary . Europe's most significant feature is the dichotomy between highland and mountainous Southern Europe and a vast, partially underwater, northern plain ranging from England in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east. These two halves are separated by the Pyrenees and the Alps -Carpathians mountain chain. The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles . The southern mountainous region is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea . Major shallow water bodies submerging parts of the northern plains are the Celtic Sea the North Sea , the Baltic Sea complex and Barents Sea
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Countries Of Europe
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe
Europe
, geographical or political. Fifty-six sovereign states, six of which have limited recognition, are listed with territory in Europe
Europe
and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status
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Geology Of Andorra
Andorra is located in the Axial Zone of the central Pyrenees mountain range in south western Europe, which means that it has intensely folded and thrusted rocks formed when the Iberian peninsula was rotated onto the European continent. OVERVIEWRocks from the Cambrian or Ordovician occur in the form of conglomerate , limestone , phyllite , quartzite , and slate . Diapirs of slate from the Silurian Period are found in the Llavirsi syncline near Bixessarri in the south west. Gneiss and schist are found in the cores of anticlines in the north east of the country. This gneiss contains muscovite . The antiforms are connected with near horizontal shear zones , containing nappes of metamorphosed sediments. Younger overlying Paleozoic metamorphosed sediments found over most of Andorra have also been steeply folded. In the south east of the country is an alkaline granite from a batholith called Mt-Louis-Andorra Batholith. It extends into Spain and covers an area of 600 km2 (230 sq mi)
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Industry
INDUSTRY is the production of goods or related services within an economy . The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
, biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans
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Tidal
TIDES are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon
Moon
and the Sun and the rotation of Earth
Earth
. The times and amplitude of tides at any given locale are influenced by the alignment of the Sun
Sun
and Moon, by the pattern of tides in the deep ocean , by the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry (see Timing ). Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day. Other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day. A "mixed tide"—two uneven tides a day, or one high and one low—is also possible. Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors. To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Water Pollution
WATER POLLUTION is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater ). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water
Water
pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water . In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities
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Geology Of Armenia
GEOLOGY (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse" ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth
Earth
, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology
Geology
can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars
Mars
). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks
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Geology Of Azerbaijan
The GEOLOGY OF AZERBAIJAN forms a constituent geological part of the Alpine fold belt . Sedimentary
Sedimentary
deposits embracing the southwestern parts of the Major and Minor Caucasus
Caucasus
, including the intermountain Kur River trough, as well as the Mid- and South Caspian basins consist of diversity fold systems. The Earth\'s crust thickness in Azerbaijan varies in the range from 38 to 55 km. Its maximum thickness is observed in the Minor Caucasus
Caucasus
area, while its minimum thickness is typical for the Talysh foothills. Geological setting of the area consists of sedimentary, volcanic-sedimentary, volcanic and terrestrial deposits embracing almost entire stratigraphic range beginning from Pre-Cambrian
Pre-Cambrian
through Holocene
Holocene
time
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Geology Of Sicily
The GEOLOGY OF SICILY (a large island located at Italy\'s southwestern end ) records the collision of the Eurasian and the African plates during westward-dipping subduction of the African slab since late Oligocene . Major tectonic units are the Hyblean foreland , the Gela foredeep, the Apenninic -Maghrebian orogen, and the Calabrian Arc. The orogen represents a fold-thrust belt that folds Mesozoic carbonates, while a major volcanic unit (Mt Etna ) is found in an eastern portion of the island. The collision of Africa and Eurasia is a retreating subduction system, such that the descending Africa is falling away from Eurasia, and Eurasia extends and fills the space as the African plate falls into the mantle, resulting in volcanic activity in Sicily and the formation of Tyrrhenian slab to the north
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Geology Of Ireland
The GEOLOGY OF IRELAND consists of the study of the rock formations in Ireland . The island contains rocks from every age from Proterozoic to Holocene , and almost every kind of rock is represented including some which have been declared World Heritage Sites . The geologic detail follows the major events in Ireland's past based on the geologic time scale. CONTENTS * 1 Timeline * 2 Rocks and soil types * 3 References * 4 External links TIMELINE Slieve League in western Ulster The oldest known Irish rock is about 1.7 billion years old and is found on Inishtrahull Island off the north coast of Ulster . Outcrops at Annagh Head on the Mullet Peninsula are almost as old
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